DRAFT
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The genus Amanita in the New Jersey Pine Barrens &
surrounding areas of New Jersey, Long Island (New York) & eastern Pennsylvania
-- a preliminary checklist

Rodham E. Tulloss
P. O. Box 57, Roosevelt, N
ew Jersey  08555-0057, USA
email

Background: The background tile for this page shows a stretch of Jakes Landing Road, Cape May Co., NJ, adjacent to a White Pine (Pinus strobus) plantation in which A. phalloides was apparently introduced.  The small plantation is surrounded by pine-oak barrens in which the dominant pine is Pitch Pine (P. rigida).

This list of species of the genus Amanita is one of the oldest and longest maintained documents in my files and was initiated in the late 1970s. Its compilation has benefited by the collecting, photographic, and annotation efforts of many people including the members of the New Jersey Mycological Association, the New York Mycological Society, and the Long Island Mushroom Club. Particularly large groups of collections were provided by A. & G. Boyd, the Burghardt family, G. Davis, R. M. Fatto, Dr. M. Goldman, C. Hogenbirk, S. Hopkins, J. L. Horman, G. Kibby, N. Macdonald, A. Norarevian, Dr. S. S. Ristich, R. Roper, B. & J. VanSant, Dr. E. H. Varney, and E. R. Yetter), my wife (Mary A. Tulloss), and my children (Mark, David, and Sarah). The list and the data it contains also benefited greatly from my conversations and correspondence with Drs. Cornelis Bas (Leiden), David T. Jenkins (Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham), and Zhu L. Yang (Kunming Botanical Institute, Academia Sinica, Yunnan Prov., China).  Representative collections of the listed species are preserved in my herbarium.

While the list is certainly incomplete, I hope that it will prove useful in identifying collections of Amanita from the Pine Barrens and surrounding areas including most of New Jersey, Long Island, and nearby counties of eastern Pennsylvania. D. T. Jenkins (1986) lists NJ records of a few fungi not yet found by myself or the collectors who have supplied me with specimens. These few taxa are in a companion checklist for the Northeastern states excluding New Jersey. I have decided to follow this approach to keep the present check list a relatively pure record of my observations based on voucher specimens.

This list contains 107 apparently distinct taxa, described or provisional, of which as many as 50 are undescribed at this time. With regard to supraspecific taxa, this document follows (Corner and Bas, 1962) and (Bas, 1969).  The taxa are surely undercounted, especially in section Vaginatae.

Data concerning spore size and shape is provided for each taxon. When spore data is my own it is preceded by three numbers as follows: [a/b/c]. In this format, a is the number of spores measured; b is the number of specimens from which these spores came; and c is the number of collections from which the specimens came.

Definitions of biometric variables are to be found here.

The Q value for A. alba sensu auct. amer. is estimated from the spore size range given by Thiers (1982). The values for taxa in section Lepidella not reviewed by me are from (Bas 1969). Remaining values not from my own measaurements are derived from (Jenkins, 1978) and/or (Jenkins, 1986). Any errors are my own responsibility.

Indication of selected collecting sites: Note that an "*" after a species in this list indicates that that species was collected in the New Jersey Pine Barrens during the 1984 Northeastern Mycological Foray.  The following list of code names for sites is available in the form of a pop-up.  This can be obtained by setting your pop-up blocker to permit pop-ups from < eticomm.net > and, then, reloading this page.

[ NJ Pine Barrens sites ]  [ NJ non-Pine Barrens sites ]  [ Long Island, NY, sites ]   [ Eastern Pennsylvania sites ]

The following codes indicate specific locations in New Jersey from which a given species has been recorded and, for which, a voucher specimen is known.  The codes appear as superscript text after a taxon's name.  (The work on including localities where taxa have been collected is not complete.)

New Jersey Pine Barrens sites are indicated as follows:

AP = Allaire State Park, Monmouth Co.
AT = all locations not separately listed, Atlantic Co.
BB = Brendan Byrne State Forest (no specific locality), Burlington County
BD = Brigantine Div., Edwin B. Forsythe Nat. Wildlife Refuge, Atlantic Co.
BE = Belleplain State Forest, location not separately listed, Cape May Co.
BT = Batsto Village, Wharton State Forest, CM = ll locations not separately listed, Cape May Co.
CU = all locations not separately listed, Cumberland Co.
FPP = Franklin Parker Preserve, Burlington Co.
GL = all locations not separately listed, Gloucester Co.
JL = Jakes Landing Road, Belleplain State Forest, Cape May Co.
JP = "Spotswood outlyer" of the Pine Barrens in or near Jamesburg Municipal Park, near Helmetta, Middlesex Co.
OC = all locations not separately listed, Ocean Co.
OW = Oswego Lake, Penn State Forest, Ocean Co.
PP = Pakim Pond, Brendan Byrne State Forest, Burlington Co.
PW = Peaslee Wildlife Management Area, ?Co.
SR = Shark River County Park, Monmouth Co.
UC = Union Lake, Cumberland Co.
WA = Waretown, Ocean Co.
WF = Wharton State Forest (excluding Batsto Village), Atlantic Co., NJ

[ NJ Pine Barrens sites ]  [ NJ non-Pine Barrens sites ]  [ Long Island, NY, sites ]   [ Eastern Pennsylvania sites ]

New Jersey sites outside of the Pine Barrens are indicated as follows:

AW = Assunpink Wildlife Management Area, Monmouth Co.
BV = Bernardsville, Somerset Co.
ES = all locations not separately listed, Essex Co.
CA = all locations not separately listed, Camden Co.
CQ = Cheesequake State Park, Middlesex Co.
HI = Hightstown, Mercer Co.
HO = Hopewell Township, Mercer Co.
HP = Holmdel County Park, Monmouth Co.
HR = Hackettstown Reservoir, Morris Co.
HU = all locations not separately listed, Hunterdon Co.
HW = Herrontown Woods County Park, Mercer Co.
LB = Lebanon, Hunterdon Co.
MF = Middlesex Falls Reservoir, Middlesex Co.
MN = all locations not separately listed, Monmouth Co.
MO = all locations not separately listed, Morris Co.
MQ = Manasquan Reservoir, Monmouth Co. [oak barrens]
MR = all locations not separately listed, Mercer Co.
MS = Millstone Township, Monmouth Co.
MW = Meadow Woods Municipal Park, Mendham, Morris Co.
OL = Oldwick, Hunterdon Co.
PA = all locations not separately listed, Passaic Co.
PR = Princeton Borough and Township, Mercer Co.
RC = Rancocas State Park, Burlington Co.
RO = Roosevelt Borough, Monmouth Co.
SF = Stokes State Forest, Sussex Co.
SM = South Mountain Reservatio, Essex Co.
SO = all locations not separately listed, Somerset Co.
SP = Stephens State Park, Warren Co.
SX = all locations not separately listed, Sussex Co.
UL = Union Lake Fish & Wildlife Management Area, Mercer Co.
WA = all locations not separately listed, Warren Co.
WO = Worthington State Forest, Warren Co.

WX = Washington Crossing State Park, Mercer Co.
YC = Yards Creek Reservation, Warren Co.

[ NJ Pine Barrens sites ]  [ NJ non-Pine Barrens sites ]  [ Long Island, NY, sites ]   [ Eastern Pennsylvania sites ]

Long Island, NY, sites are indicated as follows:

BP = Bethpage State Park, Nassau Co.
CE = Cedar Point Park, Suffolk Co.
CH = Cunningham Park, Queens Co.
CS = Caumsett State Park, Suffolk Co.
EO = Edgewood Oak Brush Plains Preserve, Suffolk Co.
MU = Muttontown Preserve, Nassau Co.
RP = Rocky Point Conservation Area, Suffolk Co.
SH = Southhaven Co. Pk., Suffolk Co.
SK = all locations not separately listed, Suffolk Co.
TR = Terrell River County Nature Preserve, Suffolk Co.

[ NJ Pine Barrens sites ]  [ NJ non-Pine Barrens sites ]  [ Long Island, NY, sites ]   [ Eastern Pennsylvania sites ]

Eastern Pennsylvania sites are indicated as follows:

LL = Locust Lake State Park, Schuylkill Co.
PE = Pocono Environmental Education Center, Pike Co.

TAXONOMIC PART

Links to listings for sections of the genus Amanita: Amanita  Caesareae  Vaginatae  Lepidella  Amidella  Phalloideae  Validae
 

Subgenus Amanita (Spores inamyloid.)
Section Amanita (Stipe bearing a basal bulb, do not confuse with cupulate volval remains on nonbulbous stipe base.)
[ sectional links ]  [  top ]  [ meaning of biometric variables ]  [ bibliography ]  [ Amanita Studies home ]  [checklists & keys page ]

             1.  

  1. albocreata (G. F. Atk.) E. J. Gilbert PE SF (In the region, found only in forests combining Canadian Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and northern hardwoods.  Spores: [121/6/6] (7.3-) 7.7 - 9.5 (-11.6) 6.6 - 8.4 (-9.4) m, (L = 8.1 - 9.0 m; L = 8.7 m; W = 7.1 - 8.1 m; W = 7.6 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.04 - 1.23 (-1.32); Q = 1.10 - 1.16; Q = 1.14).)  [ image ]

    2.

  2. crenulata Peck AT BB CQ FPP GL HO JL JP OW PP PR RO SF SR WA WX (=species 27. Extremely common. This entity is poisonous and colored differently than stated in the original description (however, in agreement with water color by original collector); small to medium stature; pale creamy to sordid tan or beige sometimes with yellowish tint; often with dense covering of paler, powdery warts and scales. Universal veil material also appears as powder on upper half to third of bulb which may have scant, gemmata-type collar; crenulata frequently accompanies muscaria var. guessowii; common under Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and pitch, white and red pines (Pinus rigida, P. strobus, P. resinosa) in Sept. & Oct.; spores: [1558/78/68] (5.9-) 7.3 - 10.2 (-14.2) (4.8-) 6.2 - 8.8 (-14.2) m, (L = (7.5-) 7.9 - 9.6 (-10.4) m; L = 8.7 m; W = (6.3-) 6.8 - 8.0 (-8.8) m; W = 7.5 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.05 - 1.34 (-1.71); Q = (1.08-) 1.10 - 1.25 (-1.36); Q = 1.17).)  [ image ]

        3. 

  1. farinosa Schwein. AW HO MS MW PR SP (Spores: [160/8/8] (6.0-) 6.5 - 8.8 (-10.5) (5.2-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-9.0) m, (L = (6.8-) 7.1 - 8.0 m; L = 7.4 m; W = 5.8 - 6.4 (-6.5) m; W = 6.1 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.08 - 1.38 (-1.47); Q = 1.15 - 1.27 (-1.31); Q = 1.22).)  
    [ image ]

    4.

  2. frostiana (Peck) Sacc. var. frostiana  (No vouchers known from New Jersey.  Spores [incorporating data taken on my collections by Zhu L. Yang]: [199/10/6] (7.5-) 8.5 - 10.5 (-12.5) (7.5-) 7.8 - 9.8 (-11.3) m, (L = (8.5-) 9.0 - 9.6 m; L = 9.2 m; W = (8.1-) 8.5 - 9.2 m; W = 8.7 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.12 (-1.17); Q = (1.04-) 1.05 - 1.08; Q = 1.06).)  [ image ]

  3. frostiana var. pallidipes Peck AW MW (Probably not truly a var. of frostiana. Spores (type per Jenkins (1978)): (7.3-) 7.9 - 10.2 (5.8-) 6.3 - 7.9 (-8.4) m; Q = 1.28.)

    6.  

  4. multisquamosa Peck OL PE (=A. pantherina var. multisquamosa (Peck) Dav. T. Jenkins =A. cothurnata G. F. Atk. Spores: [72/4/4] (6.6-) 7.0 - 11.2 (-15.0) (5.2-) 5.6 - 8.4 (-8.7) m, (L = 7.8 - 9.8 m; L = 8.8 m; W = 6.3 - 7.1 m; W = 6.7 m; Q = (1.05-) 1.12 - 1.50 (-1.58); Q = 1.22 - 1.39; Q = 1.31).)  [ image ]

    7.

  5. muscaria var. guessowii Vesel CA CM GL JL JP MN MR OC PP PR RO SF SO SR (Extremely common.  In recent American literature called "var. formosa" in error. Spores: [120/6/6] (7.0-) 8.7 - 12.2 (-14.8) (5.9-) 6.5 - 8.2 (-9.5) m, (L = 9.2 - 11.4 m; L = 10.5 m; W = 7.1 - 7.8 m; W = 7.5 m; Q = (1.09-) 1.27 - 1.56 (-1.70); Q = 1.30 - 1.49; Q = 1.42).)  [ image ]

    8

  6. muscaria var. persicina Dav. T. Jenkins EO SF (Only known regional collections from are Long Island, NY, and northwestern NJ.  Spores: [202/10/7] (8.0-) 9.2 - 12.0 (-15.8) (5.5-) 6.4 - 8.3 (-11.1) m, (L = 9.8 - 11.1 (-11.4) m; L = 10.6 m; W = 6.8 - 7.6 (-7.8) m; W = 7.3 m; Q = (1.19-) 1.33 - 1.61 (-1.75); Q = 1.43 - 1.50 (-1.52); Q = 1.46).)  [ image ]

    9.  

  7. parcivolvata (Peck) E. J. Gilbert CQ PR (Exannulate stipe.  Spores: [87/5/4] (8.4-) 9.1 - 11.5 (-12.6) (5.6-) 6.3 - 7.9 (-8.0) m, (L = 9.9 - 10.9 m; L = 10.4 m; W = 6.7 - 7.3 m; W = 7.0 m; Q = (1.26-) 1.31 - 1.64 (-1.67); Q = 1.38 - 1.55; Q = 1.48).)  [ image ]

    10.

  8. praecox Y. Lamoureux nom. prov. PE (=species 32 [Tulloss]. Yellow with a disk that becomes fulvous or at least darker after collecting, white or pallid at margin, with universal veil absent or as white, cottony patch; stipe soon exannulate; basidia without basal clamps; nearly always associated with hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) or northern hardwoods; one of the first amanitas to appear in June; spores globose to subglobose, [286/14/13] (6.3-) 7.3 - 9.8 (-12.6) (5.6-) 7.0 - 9.1 (-11.9) m, (L = (7.6-) 7.9 - 9.3 m; L = 8.6 m; W = (7.1-) 7.3 - 8.4 m; W = 7.9 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.17 (-1.42); Q = 1.05 - 1.10 (-1.11); Q = 1.08).)
    [ image ]

    11.

  9. roseitincta (Murrill) Murrill * BD (=komarekensis Dav/ T. Jenkins & Vinopal.  Rare, only one site known from the region.  Volva is triplex with powdery, pyramidal wart, and membranous layers -- all to be seen in the above images.  Bottom of partial veil is often pink at first.  All pigments fading rapidly in sunlight.  Spores: [60/3/3] (8.2-) 9.0 - 11.5 (-14.4) (5.9-) 6.0 - 8.5 (-10.0) m, (L = 9.7 - 10.4 m; L' = 10.0 m; W = 6.9 - 7.6 m; W' = 7.2 m; Q = (1.15-) 1.21 - 1.66 (-1.74); Q = 1.38 - 1.44; Q' = 1.40).)  [ image ]

     

  10. russuloides (Peck) Sacc.* GL ([probably not = A. gemmata (Fr.) Bertillon in DeChambre -- a "species complex"]; spores: [32/2/2] (8.0-) 8.2 - 10.5 (-10.8) (6.0-) 6.2 - 7.8 m, (L = 8.8 - 10.0 m; L = 9.2 m; W = 6.7 - 7.2 m; W = 6.8; Q = (1.23-) 1.25 - 1.44 (-1.53); Q = 1.32 - 1.40; Q = 1.35).)

    13.

  11. velatipes G. F. Atk. HU MW (=A. pantherina var. velatipes (G. F. Atk.) Dav. T. Jenkins. Spores: 7.9 - 13.2 6.3 - 7.9 m; Q = 1.43.) [ image ]

    14.

  12. wellsii (Murrill) Murrill LL MR (Uncommon to rare, only one collection known from NJ and one from eastern PA.  Pileus salmon to orange, fading with age, with universal veil present as a yellow powdery layer; stipe often yellow, bearing weakly structured median partial veil (often deciduous), universal veil never limbate. Known from north of the tree line in eastern Canada with Alnus and in a variety of heaths with dwarf Betula, dwarf Salix, Empetrum, and/or Vaccinium; elsewhere, associates may include Vaccinium (in cultivated blueberry fields), Betula, Populus, and (?)conifers.  The central Appalachians is the known southern limit of this taxon's range.  Note the degree of fading due to exposure to sunlight in the pilei depicted above.  Spores: [395/19/14] (8.7-) 10.5 - 13.8 (-18.0) (4.9-) 5.6 - 8.4 (-10.8) m, (L = (10.6-) 11.5 - 13.0 (-13.2) m; L = 12.0 m; W = (5.3-) 6.7 - 7.6 (- 8.6) m; W = 7.1 m; Q = (1.39-) 1.50 - 1.94 (-2.62); Q = (1.52-) 1.62 - 1.76 (-1.92); Q = 1.69).)  [ image ]

    15.    

  13. species 34 AW PE RO (I formerly believed this to represent A. nivalis Peck non Grev.  However, while I no longer feel this can be maintained, I still feel this entity should be distinguished from known species of both the gemmata and pantherina "groups"; small, slender, with cap mostly yellowish with more saturated color in the center, with delicate white partial veil and fragile white ocreate universal veil; spores: [60/3/3] (8.2-) 8.5 - 10.4 (-10.8) (6.3-) 6.5 - 7.5 (-8.6) m, (L = 9.0 - 9.7 m; L = 9.4 m; W = 6.9 - 7.0 m; W = 7.0 m; Q = (1.19-) 1.22 - 1.48 (-1.55); Q = 1.29 - 1.40; Q = 1.36).  Spores of nivalis Peck per D. T. Jenkins' type study: 7.0 - 9.4 6.3 - 7.9 m; Q' = 1.20.)  [image ]

    16. 

  14. species S1 JL (=species 37. A pale yellow, tuberculate striate entity with ephemeral partial veil.  Before the bulb is unearthed, this taxon gives the strong impression of a member of section Vaginatae.  Spores: [100/5/5] (8.4-) 8.7 - 11.2 (-12.2) (5.9-) 6.2 - 7.3 (-7.7) m, (L = 9.3 - 10.7 m; L = 9.9 m; W = 6.5 - 6.8 m; W = 6.7 m; Q = (1.27-) 1.34 - 1.66 (-2.0); Q = 1.42 - 1.60; Q = 1.48).)  [ image ]

Section Caesareae  (Stipe lacking a bulb at its base and having [at least initially] a membranous partial veil.)
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17.

  1. jacksonii Pomerleau (=umbonata Pomerleau =caesarea sensu auct. amer.  Occurs in NJ, but no vouchers available. Spores: [317/15/11] (7.0-) 7.8 - 10.0 (-12.1) (5.2-) 6.0 - 7.5 (-8.7) m, (L = (8.1-) 8.4 - 9.5 m; L = 8.8 m; W = (6.0-) 6.3 - 7.3 m; W = 6.7 m; Q = (1.11-) 1.20 - 1.52 (-1.63); Q = 1.25 - 1.40 (-1.42); Q = 1.32).)  [ image ]

    18.

  2. murrilliana Singer AW (=spreta sensu McIlvaine. Spores: [204/9/7] (8.5-) 9.5 - 12.6 (-13.6) (5.6-) 6.4 - 8.4 (-9.2) m, (L = 10.4 - 11.8 m; L = 11.2 m; W = 6.6 - 7.9 m; W = 7.4 m; Q = (1.23-) 1.32 - 1.74 (-1.88); Q = 1.43 - 1.58; Q = 1.51).) 
     
    [ image ]

    19.  

  3. pachysperma G. F. Atk. JP MQ (=species 47 =species N21. A very small mushroom with small white volval sac, with annulus (often lost) on stipe, cap pale gray on margin, deep gray in disk, sometimes with small white membranous patch of volva, in pine-oak barrens.  Spores: [204/10/5] (9.5-) 10.5 - 16.2 (-20.0) (6.0-) 7.5 - 10.5 (-12.5) m, (L = (11.3-) 11.7 - 14.5 m; L = 13.1 m; W = (8.1-) 8.6 - 9.7 m; W = 9.0 m; Q = (1.12-) 1.26 - 1.75 (-2.10); Q = (1.30-) 1.31 - 1.64; Q = 1.48).)  [ image ]

    20.

  4. murrilliana, above. Uncommon.  Cap ranges from cream to brownish gray to grayish brown, often virgate.  Partial veil often gray, especially after some aging.  Universal veil at stipe base usually a rather short saccate volva.  Spores: [154/8/8] (7.7-) 9.4 - 13.1 (-15.5) (5.2-) 5.9 - 7.8 (-9.0) m, (L = 9.9 - 12.4 m; L = 11.4 m; W = 6.2 - 7.3 m; W = 6.8 m; Q = (1.40-) 1.49 - 1.89 (-2.11); Q = 1.60 - 1.81; Q = 1.67).  Spores (from the type per Jenkins): 10.2 - 13.3 5.5 - 7.0 m; Q = 1.86.)  [ image ]

  5. 21.

  6. virginiana (Murrill) Murrill BV LB MW WX (Spores: [960/48/19] (9.1-) 11.5 - 15.0 (-20.5) (6.5-) 8.5 - 11.2 (-15.5) m, (L = (11.7-) 12.3 - 14.0 (-14.1) m; L = 13.2 m; W = (9.1-) 9.2 - 10.5 (-10.9) m; W = 9.9 m; Q = (1.07-) 1.16 - 1.52 (-1.89); Q = (1.16-) 1.21 - 1.42 (-1.55); Q = 1.33).)  [ image ]

22. Photograph by Walt Sturgeon

  1. species 16 HO MW OL (=banningiana Tulloss nom. prov., cap yellow-orange to yellow-bronze, brown umbo and may be quite yellow in expanding button, with yellow lamellae & stipe, annulate, with habit like that of a "small jacksonii". Mary Banning, writing in 1888, apparently recognized this entity as an occasional form of "caesarea": "Sometimes the pileus is ... burnt sienna color with yellowish margin. It varies also in size." Spores: [274/14/11] (7.5-) 8.4 - 11.9 (-15.0) (5.2-) 5.9 - 7.8 (-9.8) m, (L = 8.9 - 10.6 (-11.5) m; L = 10.0 m; W = 6.3 - 7.0 (-7.3) m; W = 6.7 m; Q = (1.14-) 1.33 - 1.71 (-2.14); Q = 1.39 - 1.61 (-1.69); Q = 1.49).)  [ image ]

23.

  1. species 53 MU (brown pileus, neither umbonate nor depressed, sometimes with white patch; stipe annulate; lamellae orangish white; volva white, saccate; a "Slender Caesar."  Collected by Joel Horman at Muttontown Preserve, Oyster Bay, Long Island. Spores [40/2/1] (10.5-) 10.8 - 12.5 (-14.0) (7.4-) 7.5 - 8.7 (-11.0) m, (L = 11.5 - 11.8 m; L = 11.7 m; W = 8.0 m; W = 8.0 m; Q = (1.31-) 1.35 - 1.56 (-1.67); Q = 1.45 - 1.47; Q = 1.46).)  [ image ]

Section Vaginatae (Stipe lacking a bulb at its base and lacking a membranous partial veil.)
[ sectional links ]  [  top ]
  [ meaning of biometric variables ]  [ bibliography ]  [ Amanita Studies home[checklists & keys page ]

24.  

  1. fulva sensu auct. amer. * HR JP MW PE RO SF SR (=species N15.  Extremely common -- so much so that it is often not collected.  Spores: [160/8/8] (8.0-) 9.2 - 12.0 (-14.0) (6.8-) 8.8 - 11.2 (-12.5) m, (L = (10.0-) 10.5 - 11.2 m; L = 10.6 m; W = (9.2-) 9.8 - 10.2 m; W = 9.9 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.14 (-1.22); Q = 1.06 - 1.09 (-1.10); Q = 1.08).)   [ image ]


    25.

  2. sinicoflava Tulloss PE RO SF SR SX (=species 2. Common, but often not correctly identified.  Note that the saccate volva weakens and darkens with age from the top down.  Spores: [645/33/25] (8.0-) 9.1 - 12.1 (-15.4) (7.0-) 8.4 - 11.5 (-15.4) m, (L = (9.5-) 9.8 - 11.4 (-11.7) m; L = 10.6 m; W = (8.7-) 9.0 - 10.6 (-10.8) m; W = 10.0 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.14 (-1.26); Q = 1.04 - 1.09 (-1.10); Q = 1.06).)  [ image ]

     

  3. vaginata sensu lato auct. amer. AW WX (Amanita vaginata is a European species that is interpreted differently from author to author.)



27.

  1. vaginata var. alba sensu auct. amer. PE RO WA (Amanita vaginata var. alba is a European taxon.  The eastern North American entity appears to have a universal veil with a considerably weaker structure and, possibly, smaller spores.  Photo copyright 2007 by R. E. Tulloss.  Spores (from North American material): [47/3/3] (8.8-) 9.0 - 11.0 (-13.0) (7.5-) 8.0 - 10.0 (-10.3) m, (L = 9.6 - 10.4 m; L' = 9.9  m; W = 8.6 - 9.2 m; W' = 8.9 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.05 - 1.22 (-1.27); Q = 1.10 - 1.12; q' = 1.11).  Spores (from European specimens):  [100/4/4] (8.6-) 9.8 - 12.8 (-17.0) (7.0-) 8.5 - 12.0 (-13.5) m, (L = 10.8 - 11.9 m; L = 11.4 m; W = 9.5 - 11.0 m; W = 10.3 m; Q = (1.02-) 1.04 - 1.22 (-1.82); Q = 1.08 - 1.14; Q = 1.11).  [ image ]

    28

  2. species 17 ES LB MR PR RO SP SR WX (=vansantiana Tulloss nom. prov. NB: I now consider, the entity I formerly denoted by "species 1" as being identical with species 17; but still, I wonder if there isn't more than one species here. Gray-brown to gray "vaginata," volval sac quite distinct from stipe trama, gills narrow, pileipellis drying color of cast iron; spores: [315/16/14] (6.6-) 8.4 - 12.2 (-16.8) (5.2-) 6.3 - 8.4 (-11.9) m, (L = 9.2 - 10.8 (-10.9) m; L = 10.1 m; W = 7.1 - 7.8 (-8.0) m; W = 7.5 m; Q = (1.05-) 1.17 - 1.55 (-1.80); Q = (1.21-) 1.27 - 1.44; Q = 1.35).)  [ image ]

    29

  3. species 21 MW (large basidiocarp; with thick, white, buried volva; form & color (pale olive with cream ring to deeper brown disk with tan margin from same site) reminiscent of European umbrinolutea, but spores too small (see (Moser, 1983) and (E. J. Gilbert, 1940 & 1941)); zonate pileus not a constant feature; lamellae dry from a sordid yellowish cream to a lovely pale orange [need to check this range again]; spores: [40/2/2] 8.0 - 10.1 7.7 - 9.8 m, (L = 9.1 - 9.3 m; L = 9.2 m; W = 8.7 - 9.0 m; W = 8.9 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.08 (-1.11); Q = 1.03 - 1.04; Q = 1.04).)  [ image ]

    30.

  4. species 22 (red-brown pileus showing zonation; red-brown, adder-patterned stipe; large basidiocarp; spores too small for A. umbrinolutea; spores: [20/1/1] (8.4-) 9.1 - 9.8 (-11.9) 7.7 - 9.1 (-9.8) m, (L = 9.5 m; W = 8.4 m; Q = (1.04-) 1.09 - 1.21 (-1.24); Q = 1.13).)  [ image ]

    31.

  5. species 24 * BD PW (=williamsiae Tulloss nom. prov., medium to large, pale yellow cap with brownish umbo in age, long saccate white volva. In the early 20th Cent., Mrs. E. M. Williams recognized a "yellowish form" of "vaginata" around Washington, D. C. from which area the late Dr. K. H. McKnight collected this entity. Mrs. Vera McKnight has shown me an excellent watercolor she painted of this presumed taxon. Spores: [20/1/1] 11.9 - 15.0 (-15.7) (9.5-) 10.1 - 12.6 (-14.0) m, (L = 13.4 m; W = 11.4 m; Q = 1.06 - 1.28; Q = 1.18).)  [ image ]

     

  6. species 26 * GL (small, ceciliae-like species, with more hyphae in universal veil than ceciliae and with much smaller spores, brown pileus; spores: [20/1/1] (7.0-) 8.4 - 9.8 (-10.5) 7.0 - 9.1 (-10.5) m, (L = 8.8 m; W = 8.4 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.13 (-1.18); Q = 1.05).)

    33.

  7. species 28 HO PP RO SR (=longicuneus Tulloss nom. prov., small, brownish-gray-capped, with large flaring volval sac & unusually tall limbus internus.  Also known from SW Connecticut.  Spores: [113/6/6] (8.7-) 9.6 - 12.5 (-14.5) (8.2-) 9.0 - 11.5 (-14.0) m, (L = 10.6 - 11.8 m; L = 11.1 m; W = 9.7 - 10.8 m; W = 10.3 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.05 - 1.15 (-1.18); Q = 1.07 - 1.11; Q = 1.08).)  [ image ]

    34.  

  8. species 31 (bronze-yellow, with thin and flimsy universal veil sometimes left in graying patches on disk; spores: [25/1/1] 9.4 - 11.9 (-13.3) (7.7-) 8.4 - 9.4 (-11.2) m, (Q = 1.20).)  [ image ]

    35.

  9. species 35 OL (=oldwickensis Tulloss nom. prov.; irregular pileus zonation, deep umber, sepia, ochraceous-umber to paler pileus, sometimes with hint of olivaceous; disk can be darker or lighter than surrounding color; large; stipe with dark fibrils on cream surface; perhaps close to species 22, above (but separated by spore size and pileus pigmentation); stipe base rather squared off inside saccate volva; spores: [80/4/3] (10.5-) 10.8 - 13.5 (-16.0) (8.8-) 9.8 - 12.2 (-14.2) m, (L = 10.2 - 12.5 m; L = 12.0 m; W = 10.2 - 11.6 m; W = 11.0 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.04 - 1.16 (-1.17); Q = 1.08 - 1.11; Q = 1.09).)  [ image ]

    36.  

  10. species 42 SR (at first, yellowish olive over much of pileus surrounded by a yellow zone and with a white marginal zone; with the colored zones moving toward the pileus margin, and then disappearing; finally, appearing like a brownish olive "ceciliae" with dark gray, at times nearly black, volval warts crowded over the disc; of the volva at the stipe base, only the limbus internus is easily seen; as time passes this material remains only as a black wavy line about 1 - 2 cm from the very base of the stipe. Spores: [60/3/1] (7.7-) 8.4 - 13.3 (-13.6) (7.3-) 8.0 - 13.3 m, (L = 9.5 - 11.0 m; L = 10.1 m; W = 9.1 - 10.6 m; W = 9.7 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.08 (-1.09); Q = 1.03 - 1.04; Q = 1.04).)  [ image ]

     

  11. species 44 (brown "vaginata." Spores: [20/1/1] (8.4-) 9.1 - 11.2 (-14.3) (8.4-) 9.1 - 10.8 (-13.3) m, (L = 10.4 m; W = 9.9 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.10 (-1.14); Q = 1.04).)

     

  12. species 45 RO (pale brown pileus, tuberculate striate margin, volva can be left as calyptra on pileus. Spores: [20/1/1] (8.8-) 9.5 - 12.5 (-15.0) (8.5-) 9.2 - 11.2 (-14.0) m, (L = 11.0 m; W = 10.4 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.13; Q = 1.06).)

     

  13. species 46 RO (large mushroom; disk dark umbrinous, else pileus virgate; brown stipe fibrils. Spores: [20/1/1] 9.0 - 10.8 8.5 - 9.8 (-10.5) m, (L = 9.9 m; W = 9.3 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.11 (-1.19); Q = 1.07).)

     

  14. species 48 (small mushroom with brown to very dark brown pileus, having pallid and graying patches of friable universal veil on it; stipe exannulate; basidia with clamps (?); spores: [40/2/2] (9.0-) 10.2 - 13.1 (-14.4) (8.0-) 9.5 - 12.0 (-13.0) m, (L = 11.2 - 11.8 m; L = 11.5 m; W = 10.4 - 10.9 m; W = 10.6 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.04 - 1.14 (-1.16); Q = 1.08 - 1.09; Q = 1.09).)

    41.

  15. species 49 FPP PP (=dulciarii Tulloss nom. prov.  Brown-orange to brown pileus, stipe at first with pale orange powdered-sugar-frosting which grays or browns with age and handling; universal veil of ceciliae type (but pale orangish at first, graying or browning with age); spores: [60/2/2] (8.5-) 9.0 - 12.2 (-15.5) (8.0-) 8.5 - 11.0 (-12.5) m; L = 9.8 - 10.7 m; L = 10.1 m; W = 9.0 - 9.8 m; W = 9.3 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.05 - 1.14 (-1.27); Q = 1.08 - 1.09; Q = 1.09).)  [image ]

  16. ?species 51? (pale umbrinous gray, subvirgate (10 lens) pileus; exannulate; volva white, saccate, with uneven lobes. Spores: [20/1/1] [measured from fresh gill] ? ? m, (L = ?; W = ?; Q = ; Q = ).)

  17. species 52 (orangish brown disc; area over long striations is sordid & tinted with disc color; striations tuberculate; lamellae with white flocculose edges; similar flocculence covers much of upper stipe. Collected by Renato DeBellonia in Essex Co. Spores [21/1/1] 10.0 - 13.4 (-14.2) (5.4-) 6.4 - 8.9 (-9.1) m, (L = 11.5 m; W = 7.3 m; Q = (1.34-) 1.40 - 1.86 (-2.07); Q = 1.59).)

    44. 

  18. species GSM7 PP (The pileus is zonate, with disc and area over marginal striations dark brown to fuligineous at maturity and with a brown intermediate zone.  The region of the marginal striations may be quite pallid at first.  The stipe is exannulate, often bearing dark fibrils and may turn entirely gray in age.  The volva is saccate with a limbus internus placed well above the sac's point of attachment to the stipe.  The height of the limbus internus is about 20% - 25% of the distance from its point of connection to the volval limb to the highest point of the sac.  Spores: [20/1/1] 12.3 - 14.5 (-15.5) (11.1-) 11.7 - 13.1 (-13.7) m, (L = 13.4 m; L = 13.4 m; W = 12.3 m; W = 12.3 m; Q = 1.04 - 1.13 (-1.19); Q = 1.09; Q = 1.09).)  [ image ]


    45.

  19. species N4 WX (=cinderellae Tulloss nom. prov.; pale umbrinous gray, virgate pileus; partial veil white above, gray below, then entirely gray, becoming lacerate and disappearing; universal veil as lumpy, fragile, saccate volva breaking up into thick, rounded warts, white, then graying. Spores: [60/3/3] (8.0-) 8.7 - 11.5 (-12.9) (6.3-) 6.6 - 8.0 (-8.5) m; L = 9.4 - 10.4 m; L = 9.9 m; W = 7.1 - 7.5 m; W = 7.3 m; Q = (1.22-) 1.25 - 1.50 (-1.58); Q = 1.33 - 1.39; Q = 1.36).)  [ image ]

    46.     Added: 4 August 2007.

  20. species N9 LB (Very small to small species of New England hemlock-hardwood forests (at least in New Jersey and New York); brown cap spotted with pale yellowish or cream areas [only sometimes including disc as seen in photo of Richard Balsley, above].  Stipe can be off-white to pale brown or pale gray.  The volval sac is off-white to buff and robust, infrequently leaving a patch on the cap.  Spores: [83/4/4] (8.0-) 9.4 - 14.7 (-17.1) (7.0-) 9.1 - 13.3 (-16.8) m; L = 10.8 - 12.2 m; L' = 11.5 m; W = 10.0 - 11.4 m; W' = 10.7 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.14 (-1.20); Q = 1.06 - 1.08; Q' = 1.07).)   [ image ]

      47.

  21. species N30 (pale brownish gray with paler ring between inner ends of striae and disk; stipe chalky white, exannulate; with submembranous, cracking, torn, white volval sac; spores: [80/3/3] (7.2-) 8.5 - 11.2 (-12.2) (6.0-) 7.5 - 10.0 (-11.2) m, (L = 9.6 - 10.3 m; L = 9.9 m; W = 8.5 - 9.0 m; W = 8.7 m; Q = (1.02-) 1.07 - 1.22 (-1.26); Q = 1.13 - 1.14; Q = 1.14).)  [ image ]

    48.

  22. species S3 MW (=cremeosorora Tulloss nom. prov.Rather small fruiting body with exannulate stipe and white cupulate volva.  Internal limb of volva & (sometimes) part of external limb separated from cupulate volva by strangulate zone.  Pileus is white to off-white to cream with marginal striae and bears small patches or warts of volva concolorous with those on the stipe base.  Spores: [20/1/1] (8.4-) 9.1 - 10.5 (-11.5) (7.7-) 8.4 - 9.4 (-10.5) m, (L = 9.8 m; W = 9.1 m; Q = 1.03 - 1.17; Q = 1.08).) [ image ]

    49.

  23. species V3 PE RO SR (=borealisorora Tulloss nom. prov.  The stipe is exannulate with a "snakeskin" pattern of brownish gray fibrillose scales on a pallid ground color.  Near the base is a strangulate zone with graying whole or partial ring(s) above and/or below it.  The volval remnants at the stipe base are cupulate.  The cap is is gray brown or browner, often darkest over disc.  The volval remnants on the cap are white at first but quickly become friable and dark gray.  Spores: [80/4/4] (7.7-) 9.4 - 12.0 (-14.2) (7.0-) 8.8 - 11.2 (-13.5) m, (L = 10.0 - 11.0 m; L = 10.5 m; W = 9.3 - 10.5 m; W = 10.0 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.11 (-1.12); Q = 1.04 - 1.07; Q = 1.06).  The range of this taxon probably extends into southern Canada.)
     

Subgenus Lepidella  (Spores amyloid.)
Section Amidella  (Margin appendiculate -- at least at first.  Volva as a multilayered, thick-limbed, sac on a bulbless stipe base.  Many taxa in this section have the unusual combination of amyloid spores with a striate cap margin and truncate lamellae.  Species in this section often require microscopic examination for certain identification.  A frequent exception is species 50.  [RET has personal correct field ID rate of around 75% -- inadequate.]  Many species in this section will stain pinkish (sometimes very briefly) if collected in moist weather or otherwise in very fresh condition.  Toxicity of North American taxa of sect. Amidella is unknown.)
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50  

  1. dolichopus Tulloss nom. prov. AW BB HO HU OL (=Amanitopsis volvata var. elongata Peck. Common.  Spores: [978/47/32] (7.0-) 8.8 - 12.5 (-24.0) (4.0-) 4.9 - 6.2 (-10.0) m, (L = (8.9-) 9.4 - 11.5 (-13.5) m; L = 10.5 m; W = (4.8-) 5.2 - 5.8 (-5.9) m; W = 5.5 m; Q = (1.36-) 1.59 - 2.30 (-3.33); Q = (1.64-) 1.70 - 2.12 (-2.26); Q = 1.91).)  [ image ]

  2. peckiana JP RP Kauffman in Peck (?=Amanita cylindrisporiformis (Murrill) Murrill ?=A. margarita (Murrill) Murrill.  Uncommon.  Spores: [1995/96/77] (7.1-) 9.7 - 15.0 (-26.6) (3.4-) 4.2 - 6.8 (-9.2) m, (L = (9.4-) 10.3 - 14.3 (-15.0) m; L = 12.4 m; W = (4.2-) 4.4 - 6.4 (-6.7) m; W = 5.4 m; Q = (1.33-) 1.73 - 3.05 (-4.51); Q = (1.73-) 1.86 - 2.93 (-3.08); Q = 2.29).)

    52.    

  3. volvata (Peck) Lloyd * HI (Uncommon, but locally plentiful.  Larger than its var. elongata and species 41 and with much denser layer of flocculence at the top of the stipe.  Spores: [1223/61/45] (5.8-) 8.4 - 12.3 (-14.2) (4.5-) 5.2 - 7.2 (-9.0) m, (L = (8.6-) 9.0 - 11.8 (-12.4) m; L = 10.3 m; W = (5.1-) 5.5 - 6.8 (-7.6) m; W = 6.2 m; Q = (1.16-) 1.35 - 1.94 (-2.45); Q = (1.39-) 1.48 - 1.93 (-2.02); Q = 1.65).)  [ image ]

    53.

  4. species 41 HO OL PE RO RP (=pseudovolvata Tulloss nom. prov.  Common to extremely common.  Very similar to, but usually significantly smaller than, volvata and volvata var. elongata with narrower spores of intermediate Q; marginal striations very distinct upon emergence of the pileus from the volval sac; spores: [1317/65/54] (5.0-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-13.5) (3.8-) 4.5 - 6.0 (-7.8) m, (L = (7.6-) 8.5 - 10.6 (-11.0) m; L = 9.6 m; W = (4.5-) 4.8 - 5.9 (-6.5) m; W = 5.2 m; Q = (1.11-) 1.52 - 2.16 (-2.76); Q = (1.42-) 1.64 - 2.04 (-2.14); Q = 1.85).)  [ image ]

    54. 

  5. species 50 RO (=whetstoneae Tulloss nom. prov.  Uncommon, but locally plentiful.  Largest species in the group in N. America (although all the "large" taxa can have smaller fruiting bodies); long, tubular volval sac; brick-red staining in age not prominent; pileus tends to become tannish with age (only known taxon among N. American Amidella species to do so).  Spores: [1070/52/43] (7.0-) 8.8 - 12.0 (-14.1) (4.2-) 4.8 - 6.5 (-8.2) m, (L = (8.4-) 9.0 - 11.2 (-11.6) m; L = 10.3 m; W = (4.7-) 5.0 - 6.1 (-6.8) m; W = 5.5 m; Q = (1.28-) 1.54 - 2.19 (-2.69); Q = (1.61-) 1.66 - 2.04 (-2.13); Q = 1.87).)  [ image ]

  6. species N39 JP (=canadensis Tulloss nom. prov. Known only from eastern Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, Qubec, and North Carolina; differing from A. peckiana by deep, cellular subhymenial tree; spores: [230/7/6] (8.1-) 9.9 - 16.2 (-21.0) (3.8-) 4.0 - 6.2 (-7.8) m, (L = 11.1 - 15.2 m; L = 13.0 m; W = 4.2 - 5.9 m; W = 5.2 m; Q = (1.64-) 2.0 - 3.04 (-3.33); Q = 2.30 - 2.88; Q = 2.49).)

Section Lepidella  (Cap margin appendiculate -- at least when young.  Stipe often, but not always, bearing a bulb.  Volva rarely limbate, never as a thick-limbed, multilayered sac on a bulbless stipe base.  A number of species in this section have been found to contain a non-nucleic amino acid that is a severe threat to the human kidney and liver.)  [Note: Also, see "species 6" under section Validae.]
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  [ meaning of biometric variables ]  [ bibliography[ Amanita Studies home ]  [ checklists & keys page ]

5
6  

  1. abrupta Peck * AT HU JP MQ R0 SR (Common.  Spores: [97/4/4] (6.1-) 7.2 - 9.0 (-10.7) (4.8-) 5.9 - 7.5 (-9.2) m, (L = 7.9 - 8.5 m; L = 8.1 m; W = 6.1 - 6.8 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.07-) 1.10 - 1.40 (-1.61); Q = 1.17 - 1.32; Q = 1.23).)  [ image ]

    57

  2. atkinsoniana Coker BP? HR (Uncommon.  Spores: [50/2/2] (8.0-) 8.7 - 10.5 (-13.0) 5.9 - 7.7 (-8.5) m, (L = 9.3 - 9.7 m; L = 9.5 m; W = 6.6 - 6.9 m; W = 6.7 m; Q = (1.18-) 1.25 - 1.64 (-1.67); Q = 1.41; Q = 1.41).)  [ image ]

    58

  3. canescens Dav. T. Jenkins  JP MN MQ? RP SR? (Uncommon.  A robust species with weakly attached partial veil and golden orange to pale salmon to orangish white fibrils on the stipe (especially after handling).  Spores: [125/6/5] (6.5-) 7.5 - 10.8 (-12.0) (4.5-) 4.8 - 6.0 (-6.8) m, (L = 8.3 - 9.5 m; L = 8.9 m; W = 5.0 - 5.7 m; W = 5.3 m; Q = (1.35-) 1.46 - 1.94 (-2.16); Q = 1.60 - 1.75; Q = 1.67).)  [ image ]

    59.  

  4. chlorinosma (Peck in Austin) Lloyd EO MN? (Uncommon.  Known outside NJ in the region of study from a single Long Island collection.  Spores: [85/4/4] (7.5-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-12.2) (4.5-) 4.7 - 6.5 (-7.5) m, (L = 8.5 - 10.2 m; L = 9.2 m; W = 5.1 - 6.1 m; W = 5.5 m; Q = (1.37-) 1.45 - 2.02 (-2.35); Q = 1.52 - 1.81; Q = 1.69).)   [ image ]

    60.    

  5. cinereopannosa Bas (Uncommon.  The gray warts on an expanding cap suggest mudpies made by tiny creatures -- even the fingerprints seem to be visible.  Fresh material often has the odor of biscuit dough.  Spores: [150/6/6] (8.0-) 8.8 - 12.0 (-14.1) (4.9-) 5.2 - 7.0 (-8.3) m, (L = 9.5 - 10.9 m; L = 10.2 m; W = 5.6 - 6.1 m; W = 6.0 m; Q = (1.30-) 1.50 - 2.0 (-2.40); Q = 1.63 - 1.82; Q = 1.72).)  [ image ]



    61.

  6. cokeri (E. J. Gilbert & Khner) E. J. Gilbert JP MF RO (Spores: [95/5/4] (9.2-) 10.8 - 13.2 (-15.0) (5.5-) 6.5 - 8.7 (-9.5) m, (L = 11.4 - 12.7 m; L = 11.9 m; W = (6.9-) 7.8 - 8.1 m; W = 7.8 m; Q = (1.27-) 1.35 - 1.79 (-2.0); Q = 1.44 - 1.56 (-1.74); Q = 1.53).)   [ image

    62.  

  7. cylindrispora Beardslee * HP JP UL (=species 7.  Uncommon.  Spores: [530/24/19] (7.8-) 11.5 - 15.8 (-24.5) (3.2-) 3.8 - 5.0 (-6.2) m, (L = (11.7-) 11.9 - 14.4 (-15.3) m; L = 13.3 m; W = 4.0 - 4.8 (-4.9) m; W = 4.3 m; Q = (1.94-) 2.40 - 3.81 (-5.10); Q = (2.44-) 2.55 - 3.55 (-3.60); Q = 3.11).)  [ image ]

    63.

  8. daucipes (Mont.) Lloyd * AW BT LB PR SO YC (Uncommon (?), but locally plentiful.  Universal veil turns pink to salmon.  Often, a felted or subfelted piece of the universal veil's limbus internus is present at the base of the stipe, above the bulb.  Spores: [100/5/5] (8.0-) 9.1 - 11.5 (-13.8) (5.3-) 5.5 - 7.2 (-9.9) m, (L = 9.8 - 10.8 m; L = 10.2 m; W = 6.0 - 6.5 m; W = 6.2 m; Q = (1.22-) 1.48 - 1.82 (-1.93); Q = 1.57 - 1.68; Q = 1.64).)  [ image ]

  9. limbatula Bas SK (Rare.  Known from type locality on Long Island, NY.  Spores: [51/2/2] (7.3-) 8.0 - 12.2 4.5 - 7.0 m, (L = 10.1 - 10.2 m; L = 10.2 m; W = W = 5.5 m; Q = (1.44-) 1.54 - 2.29 (-2.35); Q = 1.82 - 1.87; Q = 1.85).)

    65.

  10. longipes Bas ex Tulloss & Dav. T. Jenkins * AW BB HP HU JP OC PP RO SK SR WA (Common in the coastal plain.  Spores: [820/41/41] (7.2-) 9.8 - 14.0 (-21) (3.9-) 4.6 - 6.3 (-9.8) m, (L = (10.3-) 10.4 - 12.7 (-13.6) m; L = 11.8 m; W = (4.5-) 4.8 - 5.9 (-6.3) m; W = 5.4 m; Q = (1.50-) 1.75 - 2.63 (-3.50); Q = (1.85-) 1.94 - 2.48 (-2.51); Q = 2.20).)  [ image ]

    66.

  11. microlepis Bas PR (Rare, known from a single site in the region.  Gills are cafe-au-lait.  Spores: [55/3/3] (8.2-) 8.4 - 10.8 (5.6-) 5.9 - 7.3 (-8.0) m, (L = 9.3 - 9.9 m; L = 9.5 m; W = 6.2 - 7.0 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.22-) 1.27 - 1.60 (-1.86); Q = 1.36 - 1.51; Q = 1.45.)  [ image ]

    67.

  12. mutabilis Beardslee * JP OC  (Uncommon.  Apparently restricted to the coastal plain.  Best known site in Lakehurst has been destroyed by development.  Odor of anise, raspberry-sherbert staining reaction when cut or broken.  Spores: [195/9/8] (8.7-) 10.0 - 14.6 (-18.9) (5.0-) 6.0 - 8.0 (-12.6) m, (L = 11.0 - 12.6 (-13.8) m; L = 12.0 m; W = 6.6 - 7.6 (-8.3) m; W = 7.1 m; Q = (1.30-) 1.50 - 1.90 (-2.10); Q = (1.60-) 1.65 - 1.78; Q = 1.70).)   [ image ]

    68.

  13. onusta (Howe) Sacc. * AW CQ JP HI MO MR MW WO WX (Common.  Locally plentiful.  Spores: [215/12/12] (7.0-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-13.0) (5.0-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-8.3) m, (L = 8.3 - 10.5 (-11.0) m; L = 9.4 m; W = 5.7 - 6.5 (-7.1) m; W = 6.1 m; Q = (1.14-) 1.28 - 1.85 (-2.21); Q = 1.35 - 1.65 (-1.84); Q = 1.52).)  [ image ]

  14. parva (Murrill) Murrill JP (=species 3.  Rare, known from a single site in the region (in sandy, pine-oak barrens).  Very small species with powdery white cap when freshly expanded, with small upstanding weakly submembranous ridge (often partial) around top of bulb a small distance from the stipe base.  Spores: [75/4/2] (9.2-) 11.2 - 14.0 (-17.1) (4.7-) 4.9 - 6.0 (-8.6) m, (L = 12.1 - 12.7 m; L' = 12.5 m; W = 5.3 - 5.5 m; W' = 5.4 m; Q = (1.44-) 2.09 - 2.60 (-2.76); Q = 2.25 - 2.39; Q' = 2.32).)

    70

  15. polypyramis (Berk. & Curt.) Sacc. WA (Rare in the region; known only from a single site.  Pileus can be the size of a dinner plate -- a very large fruiting body.  Spores: [285/13/11] (7.0-) 9.1 - 13.0 (-17.5) (5.2-) 5.9 - 7.7 (-9.5) m, (L = (9.0-) 10.0 - 12.1 m; L = 11.4 m; W = 6.5 - 7.2 (-7.4) m; W = 6.8 m; Q = (1.11-) 1.38 - 1.93 (-2.02); Q = (1.35-) 1.50 - 1.81; Q = 1.67).)  
    [ image ]


    71

  16. ravenelii (Berk. & Curt.) Sacc. HO MR (Uncommon.  The range of this species lies predominantly in the southeastern US.  Warts like hills with radial erosion on sides; bulb from top-shaped to irregular.  Spores: [285/13/11] (7.0-) 8.0 - 11.9 (14.0) (4.6-) 5.2 - 7.7 (-8.5) m, (L = (8.3-) 8.5 - 11.1 m; L = 9.7; W = 5.6 - 7.0 (-7.4) m; W = 6.3 m; Q = (1.23-) 1.33 - 1.81 (-2.50); Q = 1.46 - 1.64 (-1.81); Q = 1.54).)   [ image ]

    72.  

  17. rhopalopus Bas f. rhopalopus HR (Uncommon to rare.  Bulb is rooting, but with a distinct and rather abrupt terminus.  Spores: [110/5/5] (7.3-) 8.0 - 10.9 (-12.5) (4.8-) 5.4 - 6.8 (-8.1) m, (L = 8.6 - 10.0 m; L = 9.2 m; W = 5.9 - 6.4 m; W = 6.1 m; Q = (1.19-) 1.32 - 1.745 (-1.88); Q = 1.46 - 1.61; Q = 1.52).)  [ image ]

    73.  

  18. subsolitaria (Murrill) Murrill * BP HI JP MQ OC RC RO TR WA (=A. solitariiformis (Murrill) Murrill =A. crassifolia Bas nom. prov.  Uncommon outside the coastal plain.  Common within the coastal plain.  Moderately rooting, carrot-like bulb; usually a few forking gills can be found.  Spores: [596/27/27] (7.3-) 9.1 - 14.0 (-21) (3.5-) 4.2 - 5.2 (-6.5) m, (L = (8.9-) 9.6 - 12.7 (-13.6) m; L = 11.4 m; W = (4.1-) 4.3 - 5.1 m; W = 4.6 m; Q = (1.57-) 2.0 - 3.0 (-3.83); Q = (2.03-) 2.21 - 2.79 (-2.81); Q = 2.47).). This entity, apparently when infected by one or more imperfect fungi and/or bacteria, produces sterile or small-spored basidiocarps that become brilliant yellow or yellow-orange on exposure to air. In this condition, Q is highly variable. Spores from material determined as A. crassifolia: [45/2/2] (6.6-) 8.7 - 11.5 (-14.0) (4.2-) 4.5 - 6.0 (-6.3) m, (L = 10.2 - 10.3 m; L = 10.2 m; W = 5.1 - 5.5 m; W = 5.3 m; Q = (1.47-) 1.72 - 2.22 (-2.50); Q = 1.89 - 1.99; Q = 1.95).)  [ image ]

    74.

  19. tephrea Bas nom. prov. CH HU MN (Uncommon. Only recently collected in region.  Previously known from the Carolinas and mid-Appalchians.  Spores: [139/6/6] (7.5-) 8.6 - 12.4 (-17.1) (5.2-) 5.6 - 8.0 (-9.6) m, (L = 9.1 - 11.2 m; L = 10.6 m; W = 6.0 - 7.3 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.29-) 1.35 - 1.95 (-2.56); Q = 1.51 - 1.75; Q = 1.61).)  [ image ]

    75.

  20. species 4 * JP OC (=scalaris Tulloss nom. prov.  The Ocean Co. site has been destroyed by development.  Common at the single known site, which unfortunately has suffered greatly from damage by motorized off-road vehicles.  Scant or felted partial veil; at times with rather large polygonal based, truncate pyramidal warts, occasionally areolate, having terraced top of napiform bulb; spores: [75/4/3] (8.5-) 11.8 - 15.5 (-17.0) (4.0-) 4.2 - 5.5 (-6.0) m, (L = 13.1 - 14.0 m; L = 13.6 m; W = 4.6 - 5.2 m; W = 4.9 m; Q = (1.89-) 2.28 - 3.29 (-3.60); Q =2.61 - 2.98; Q = 2.81).)  [ image ]

    76. 

  21. species 5 * BT FPP JP MW OC? OL RO (=subcokeri Tulloss nom. prov.  Common.  Having large rooting bulb with recurved scales, occasionally having doubled partial veil (see photo, above left), odorous (burnt sugar mixed with cedar chest), acquiring rusty to pinkish to brick red spots, with warts on pileus liable to attack by Penicillium sp., spores too small for A. cokeri.  Spores: [461/23/23] (8.0-) 10.2 - 14.0 (-19.0) (5.2-) 5.9 - 7.5 (-10.9) m, (L = (10.7-) 10.8 - 13.6 (-13.8) m; L = 12.1 m; W = (6.0-) 6.1 - 7.0 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.33-) 1.57 - 2.17 (-2.82); Q = (1.59-) 1.64 - 2.02 (-2.11); Q = 1.85).)  [ image


    77.

  22. species 9 HR MW SP (=magniradix Tulloss nom. prov.  Uncommon.  Picture on the left is typical (root so long that the collector fails to get it all).  Picture in center is atypical (root has clear terminus).  Sometimes with yellowing partial veil flocculence, with pileipellis extending several mm (sterile margin) beyond the end of the lamellae; deeply rooting, pointed browning warts on pileus.  Spores: [250/12/12] (6.5-) 8.4 - 11.7 (-14.7) (4.3-) 4.5 - 6.3 (-7.8) m, (L = (8.7-) 9.1 - 11.0 m; L = 10.1 m; W = 4.9 - 6.1 (-6.2) m; W = 5.4 m; Q = (1.43-) 1.57 - 2.18 (-2.89); Q = 1.69 - 1.97 (-2.17); Q = 1.86).)  [ image ]

  23. species 11 AW (Macroscopically very similar to onusta, but with radically different spores.  Known in the region only from a single collection.  Spores: [15/1/1] (9.8-) 10.5 - 12.3 (12.6) 4.9 - 5.6 (-6.3) m, (L = 11.3 m; W = 5.3 m; Q = 1.88 - 2.43 (-2.50); Q = 2.16).)

     

  24. species 30 PA (Known only from a single regional collection.  Strong odor, double partial veil.  Spores: [15/1/1] 9.1 - 10.5 (5.6-) 6.3 - 7.0 m, (L = 10.1 m; W = 6.4 m; Q = 1.44 - 1.70 (-1.88); Q = 1.58).)


    80.

  25. species 38 CH HP MO SM (Uncommon.  Formerly, I assigned the collections included here to A. cinereoconia var. cinereoconia; but this is an error. This entity can be rather large with a naked ventricose bulb and a pileus covered with gray dust sometimes compressed into submembranous rags. Spores: [60/2/2] (8.0-) 8.4 - 11.9 (-12.6) 5.6 - 7.3 (-7.7) m, (L = 9.4 - 11.4 m; L = 10.1 m; W = 6.2 - 6.8 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.14-) 1.25 - 1.95 (-2.12); Q = 1.39 - 1.86; Q = 1.55).)  [ image ]

    81.

  26. species 39 HO SR (Uncommon.  Middle-sized, white at first, then with radial tan fibrils, chlorine-type odor, liable to hypomycization, cracking of bulb causes misdiagnosis as A. cokeri; it is possible that this material could be assignable to A. canescens; I previously included this taxon under A. spissa var. alba Coker. Spores: [60/3/3] (6.5-) 7.5 - 9.8 (-11.9) (4.0-) 4.2 - 5.6 (-6.3) m, (L = 8.0 - 9.0 m; L = 8.4 m; W = 4.8 - 5.2 m; W = 5.0 m; Q = (1.25-) 1.51 - 1.92 (-2.21); Q = 1.65 - 1.74; Q = 1.69).)  [ image ]

Section Phalloideae (All regional taxa in this section should be assumed to contain deadly amatoxins (also called amanitins), although the concentration can vary greatly from one specimen to another even within a single species.  Soft to firm stipe bulb with limbate volva, not complexly layered; pileus margin not appendiculate.  Stipe always with a membranous (rarely felted -- A. magnivelaris) partial veil.  Basidia usually rather short and always lacking basal clamps.)
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82.

  1. bisporigera G. F. Atk. * AW BV CQ FPP HO HR HW JL JP MQ MW OC PP RO SF WA WX YC  (= A. virosa sensu auct. amer.  Extremely common.  Contains deadly amatoxins.  Reacts brilliant yellow to 5% - 10% KOH solution.  Spores: [452/19/16] (5.2-) 7.2 - 9.9 (-11.0) (4.8-) 6.5 - 8.6 (-10.0) m, (L = (7.8-) 7.9 - 9.2 (-9.6) m; L = 8.4 m; W = (7.0-) 7.1 - 8.1 (-8.2) m; W = 7.5 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.25 (-1.70); Q = (1.05-) 1.06 - 1.18 (-1.20); Q = 1.11).)  [ image ]

  2. elliptosperma G. F. Atk. (There are a number of similar species that are addressed on the species page for A. elliptosperma.  The specimen reported here is labeled simply "northern New Jersey."  Contains deadly amatoxins.  Spores [including type]: [807/35/30] (6.8-) 8.3 - 11.5 (-16.3) (4.8-) 5.8 - 8.0 (-11.0) m, (L = (8.7-) 8.8 - 10.8 (-11.5) m; L = 9.8 m; W = (5.5-) 6.0 - 7.7 (-8.0) m; W = 6.8 m; Q = (1.12-) 1.26 - 1.66 (-2.29); Q = (1.32-) 1.35 - 1.57 (-1.65); Q = 1.44).)


    8
    4.

  3. phalloides (Fr.:Fr.) Link in Willdenow AT BV CU JL MW RO (Contains deadly amatoxins.  Locally plentiful.  Sickly sweet (or "honey-like") odor develops by maturity.  Widely dispersed by the exportation of European host trees: Argentina, Australia (ACT), Canada, Europe, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, South Africa, Tanzania, Turkey, USA, ?Uruguay.) (Spores: [296/15/14] (7.5-) 8.0 - 10.1 (-13.5) (5.5-) 6.1 - 8.0 (-10.5) m, (L = 8.3 - 9.3 (-9.5) m; L = 8.9 m; W = (6.4-) 6.8 - 7.4 m; W = 7.1 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.12 - 1.47 (-1.70); Q = 1.20 - 1.33 (-1.40); Q = 1.26).)  [ image ]

    85.

  4. species 33 JP WA (Whitish to slightly sordid, small, suggesting bisporigera including yellow reaction to KOH and negative reaction to L-tyrosine, basidia 4-spored, but spores often broadly ellipsoid. Probably contains deadly amatoxins.  Known as far north as the New Jersey pine barrens. Molecular work will probably clarify the relationship of this taxon to A. bisporigera.  Spores: [85/4/4] (4.9-) 8.0 - 10.1 (-11.2) (4.2-) 7.0 - 8.7 (-9.4) m, Q = (1.09-) 1.16 - 1.17).)  [ image ]

Section Validae (Universal veil almost always friable, appearing as a small limb only in taxa with a marginate stipe bulb.  Stipe always annulate.  Pilei may be brightly colored.  Basidia usually rather short and always lacking basal clamps.  While some of the taxa in this section may not contain a hemolytic compound, a number of them do.  Therefore, ingestion of species in this section without thorough cooking is to be strongly discouraged.  Experimentation with eating amanitas is not a good idea at any rate.)
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86.

  1. aestivalis Singer ex Singer AW JP RO (Uncommon.  With the habit of A. brunnescens; however, staining reaction is very slow.  Pileus is dominantly pure white with some yellowish tint over disc at times.  Spores: [200/9/6] (5.8-) 7.0 - 9.5 (-10.9) (5.0-) 6.8 - 8.8 (-10.5) m, (L = (7.6-) 7.9 - 8.6 m; L = 8.4 m; W = (7.2-) 7.5 - 8.0 m; W = 7.8 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.14 (-1.20); Q = 106 - 1.08 (-1.09); Q = 1.07).)  [ image ]

    87.

  2. brunnescens G. F. Atk. * AW HR JP MQ MW OC OW RO (=A. brunnescens var. pallida L. Krieg. Extremely common.  Spores: [35/2/2] (7.0-) 7.5 - 9.2 (-9.5) (6.5-) 7.0 - 8.5 (-9.2) m, (L = 8.2 - 8.7 m; L = m; W = 7.6 - 8.0 m; W = m; Q = (1.0-) 1.03 - 1.15 (-1.18); Q = 1.08; Q = 1.08).)  [ image ]

    88.

  3. citrina sensu auct. amer. BD? HW? JP? (The eastern North American taxon is distinct from the European species and includes a large-bulbed form.  It is possible that all collections from the region will prove to be A. citrina f. lavendula (see below).  Spores: [100/4/4] (6.0-) 7.5 - 9.0 (-11.0) (5.8-) 6.8 - 8.5 (-10.2) m, (L = 8.0 - 8.6 m; L = 8.3 m; W = 7.6 - 8.2 m; W = 7.8 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.13 (-1.20); Q = 1.05 - 1.07; Q = 1.06).)  [ image ]

    89.  

  4. citrina f. lavendula (Coker) Vesel FPP JP MQ PP RO (Extremely common, although not always revealing any lavender coloring.  This taxon differs from A. citrina sensu auct amer. only by the tendency of its volva, pileipellis, context, etc. to turn lavender.  There is a possibility that the lavender form is (at least sometimes) produced by environmental effects; and that there is really only a single taxon involved.  Spores: [55/3/3] (6.3-) 6.4 - 8.0 (-8.8) (5.2-) 5.5 - 7.1 (-7.8) m, (L = 7.0 - 7.2 m; L = 7.1 m; W = 6.0 - 6.4 m; W = 6.2 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.05 - 1.26 (-1.30); Q = 1.11 - 1.18; Q = 1.15).)  [ image ]

    90  

  5. elongata Peck AW (Uncommon.  Cap usually yellow (sometimes with irregular orange spot(s); stipe usually white (sometimes with yellow in part); partial veil white to yellow; spores longer and proportionately narrower than those of A. flavoconia type variety.  Spores: [113/6/6] (6.8-) 7.5 - 10.5 (-12.5) (4.0-) 5.0 - 6.9 (-8.7) m, (L = 7.9 - 9.6 m; L = 8.8 m; W = 5.3 - 6.4 m; W = 5.8 m; Q = (1.21-) 1.33 - 1.70 (-1.81); Q = 1.45 - 1.58; Q = 1.52).)  [ image ]

    91.

  6. flavoconia G. F. Atk. var. flavoconia * AW HO JP MQ MW OW PE RO SF SR (Extremely common, with a wide variety of symbionts.  Spores: [139/8/8] (6.5-) 6.8 - 9.0 (-10.6) (4.8-) 5.0 - 7.0 (-8.9) m, (L = 7.2 - 8.2 (-8.6) m; L = 7.9 m; W = (5.3-) 5.5 - 6.9 m; W = 6.0 m; Q = (1.08-) 1.15 - 1.50 (-1.64); Q = 1.21 - 1.43 (-1.49); Q = 1.33).)  [ image ]

    92.

  7. flavorubens (Berk. & Mont.) Sacc. BV HI HO MQ MR PE RO SH SO SP SR (=flavorubescens G. F. Atk.  Common.  Purplish red (wine) staining is most common in the flesh at the base of the stipe; however, when the pileus has broken through a dense lawn turf (for example), the whole cap surface may be wine colored.  The yellow pigment can be washed out by rain.  Spores: [180/9/8] (7.4-) 7.8 - 11.0 (-12.6) (4.9-) 5.4 - 7.0 (-8.4) m, (L = 8.3 - 9.6 (-10.7) m; L = 9.2 m; W = (5.5-) 5.7 - 6.6 m; W = 6.1 m; Q = (1.17-) 1.28 - 1.76 (-1.96); Q = (1.34-) 1.37 - 1.67; Q = 1.52).)  [ image ]

    93.

  8. morrisii Peck FPP OW PP (Uncommon.  Should be sought in coastal plain areas where sandy soil is often moist.  Notice the small annulus with the orangish or beige underside; the cap is very, very dark in the button of this species. (Peck originally considered the name "bicolor" for this species.)  Also, check for the smell of apples.  Spores: [585/29/8] (6.0-) 7.2 - 9.8 (-11.5) (4.2-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-8.2) m, (L = (7.4-) 7.9 - 9.1 (-9.3) m; L = 8.5 m; W = (5.5-) 5.9 - 6.6 (-6.7) m; W = 6.3 m; Q = (1.11-) 1.20 - 1.52 (-1.64); Q = (1.28-) 1.30 - 1.42 (-1.44); Q = 1.36).)  [ image ]

    94.  

  9. rubescens var. alba Coker * BV JP (Uncommon.  Certainly not a variety of the European species -- A. rubescens.  Specimens found in South Carolina have had a yellowish underside to the usually entirely white partial veil.  Spores: [141/7/6] (6.5-) 7.0 - 9.8 (-10.5) (4.5-) 5.0 - 7.0 (-8.5) m, (L = 7.6 - 9.0 (-9.2) m; L = 8.3 m; W = 5.5 - 6.1 (-6.7) m; W = 5.9 m; Q = (1.12-) 1.24 - 1.60 (-1.69); Q = 1.34 - 1.49 (-1.50); Q = 1.41).)  [ image ]

    95.

  10. rubescens sensu auct. amer. * AW CQ FPP HO HR JP MQ MR RO SP SR WX YC (Extremely common.  This entry includes specimens with yellowish underside of the partial veil which do not represent the f. annulosulfurea of Europe. Spores: [40/2/2] (7.0-) 7.3 - 9.5 (-9.8) (5.6-) 5.9 - 7.0 (-7.3) m, (L = 7.9 - 9.1 m; L = 8.5 m; W = 6.4 - 6.6 m; W = 6.5 m; Q = (1.05-) 1.14 - 1.46 (-1.53); Q = 1.23 - 1.38; Q = 1.31).)  [ image ]

    96

  11. salmonescens Tulloss HW (=species 8.  Rare, known only from a single site in NJ.  This species is reported as locally common in Illinois.  It is also known from the Adirondack Mtns. in western SC.  Stipe bruising salmon then becoming sordid; spores: [144/6/5] (5.9-) 7.0 - 9.2 (-10.5) (4.2-) 4.5 - 6.0 (-6.5) m, (L = (7.7-) 7.8 - 8.4 m; L = 8.1 m; W = (4.9-) 5.2 - 5.6 m; W = 5.3 m; Q = (1.18-) 1.35 - 1.75 (-1.88); Q = 1.45 - 1.57 (-1.62); Q = 1.54).)   [ image ]

    97.

  12. solaniolens (cf.) H. L. Stewart & Grund CQ (=species N20.  Rare.  Originally described from Nova Scotia.  Like a small "A. brunnescens" with yellow volval material and pale sulfur yellow annulus; pileus distinctly virgate; spores: [70/3/3] 7.0 - 8.8 (-10.5) (5.5-) 6.5 - 8.0 (-9.5) m, (L = 7.9 - 8.2 m; L = 8.0 m; W = 7.1 - 7.4 m; W = 7.2 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.03 - 1.27 (-1.35); Q = 1.06 - 1.16; Q = 1.11).) [ image ]

     

  13. spissa var. alba Coker * BD BE? HO (Poorly known taxon.  Type consists only of a spore print.  Spores (per Jenkins): 6.3 - 7.5 4.2 - 5.0 m; Q' = 1.50.)

    99.

  14. submaculata Peck BT HU JP LB RO SR (=species 18 =species 29.  Virgate cap with occasional depigmented spots, gray-brown, with fruit-like or anise-like (rarely tar-like) odor.  The copious partial veil often separates in two stages, creating a crease around it at about mid-radius that suggests a 19th Century ball gown.  Spores: [386/18/15] (6.3-) 7.0 - 9.8 (-13.3) (4.5-) 4.9 - 6.6 (-8.4) m, (L = (7.2-) 7.8 - 8.7 (-8.8) m; L = 8.4 m; W = (5.2-) 5.5 - 6.2 m; W = 5.7 m; Q = (1.18-) 1.25 - 1.67 (-2.02); Q = (1.32-) 1.36 - 1.56 (-1.64); Q' = 1.47).)  [ image ]


    100.

  15. species 6 AW RO (white, with detersile, broadly pyramidal, orangish white universal veil warts; spores: [85/4/4] (5.0-) 7.0 - 10.0 (-11.0) (4.0-) 4.5 - 6.0 (-7.0) m, (L = 8.2 - 8.8 m; L = 8.4 m; W = 4.9 - 5.4 m; W = 5.1; Q = (?1.0-) 1.34 - 2.0 (-2.12); Q = 1.56 - 1.68; Q = 1.61).)  [ image ]

    101.

  16. species 10 CH PR (Uncommon.  Known from one site in NJ and one on Long Island.  A very similar taxon has been collected in Central America.  Brown pileus, differing from A. franchetii sensu Dav. T. Jenkins due to apparent innate fibrils in cap & a more olivaceous brown pileus; differing from European franchetii due to lack of yellow context exposed when the immature pileipellis is scraped away; yellow universal veil material; habit suggestive of flavoconia. Spores: [45/2/2] 7.0 - 9.1 (-9.4) (4.9-) 5.2 - 6.3 m, (L = 7.8 - 8.5 m; L = 8.3 m; W = 5.5 - 5.8 m; W = 5.7 m; Q = (1.25-) 1.30 - 1.62; Q = 1.42 - 1.47; Q = 1.45).)  [ image ]

    102.

  17. species 15 OW (Probably = morrisii (above); apple odor; image taken in late afternoon (too much red tint); spores: [75/3/2] (8.0-) 8.4 - 9.8 (-11.5) 5.6 - 7.7 (-8.4) m, (L = 8.9 - 9.4 m; L = 9.2 m; W = 6.5 - 6.6 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.20-) 1.25 - 1.56; Q = 1.37 - 1.42; Q = 1.40).)  [ image ]

    103.

  18. species 19 MW (Rare, known only from a single site in the region.  Uneven pileus, detersile warts, brown disk, robust stipe, fragile partial veil, affin. excelsa sensu Coker (1917); spores: [40/2/2] (7.0-) 7.3 - 9.8 (-11.5) (4.5-) 4.9 - 6.2 (-6.5) m, (L = 7.8 - 8.8 m; L = 8.3 m; W = 5.0 - 5.7 m; W = 5.4 m; Q = (1.31-) 1.40 - 1.69 (-1.92); Q = 1.54 - 1.56; Q = 1.55).)  [ image ]

     

  19. species 23 * BE BT WF (brown radial "fibrils" in cap, spores large for Validae, yellowish submembranous universal veil material on bulb; spores: [20/1/1] 7.7 - 12.2 (4.5-) 4.9 - 7.7 m, (L = 10.0 m; W = 6.1 m; Q = (1.40-) 1.50 - 1.89 (-2.02); Q = 1.65).)

    105.  

  20. species 25 * UC (Rare, known from only two collections made in 1984.  Pale yellow partial veil with thick edge; odor of oil of wintergreen (methyl salicylate); cap citrin-yellow; yellow lamellae edges, large ovoid bulb with brief marginal limb of even length; spores: [20/1/1] (6.3-) 7.0 - 9.1 (-9.8) (5.6-) 6.3 - 9.1 (-9.8) m, (L = 8.6 m; W = 8.1 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.17 (-1.25); Q = 1.07).)  
    [ image ]

    106.

  21. species 36 HO SR (If an incompletely expanded pileipellis is scraped away, a brilliant yellow is seen; this is an identifying character of the European species A. franchetii; however, the European species' spores are longer and have Q around 1.38. The N. American taxon has yellow, unchanging volval material and an orangy-brown to yellow-brown pileus; its stature is like a small flavorubens.  Spores: [60/3/1] (5.9-) 6.6 - 8.4 (-9.4) 4.2 - 5.2 (-5.6) m, (L = 7.3 - 7.5 m; L = 7.4 m; W = 4.7 - 5.0 m; W = 4.8 m; Q = (1.27-) 1.35 - 1.74 (-1.87); Q = 1.51 - 1.58; Q = 1.56).)  [ image ]

    107.

  22. species 43 (Small pale brown pileus, not virgate (one differentiation from A. sp. 10 (above)); volval material pale yellow, fading to cream. Spores: [20/1/1] 7.3 - 9.1 (-9.8) (4.9-) 5.2 - 6.3 m, (L = 8.3 m; W = 5.7 m; Q = 1.30 - 1.62; Q = 1.47).)  [ image ]

     

BIBLIOGRAPHY
(
NB: partial and a bit out-of-date)
[ sectional links ]  [  top [ meaning of biometric variables ]  [ Amanita Studies home ]  [checklists & keys page ]

Bas, C. 1969. Morphology and subdivision of Amanita and a monograph of its section Lepidella,. Persoonia 5(4): 285-579.

Coker, W. C. 1917. The amanitas of the eastern United States. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 33(1 & 2): i + 1-88.

Gilbert, E. J. 1940 & 1941. Amanitaceae. Iconogr. Mycol. (Milan) 27 & suppls. xx + 427 pp., 73 pl.

Jenkins, D. T. 1978. A study of Amanita types. I. Taxa described by C. H. Peck. Mycotaxon 7: 23-44.

_____. 1986. Amanita of North America (Mad River, Eureka). vi+198 pp.

Lincoff, G. 1981. The Audubon Society field guide to North American mushrooms. (Knopf, New York). 926 pp.

Morales-Torres, E., M. Villegas-Ros, J. Cifuentes and R. E. Tulloss. 1999. Revision of Amanita alexandri Guzmn and its similarity to Amanita polypyramis (Berk. & Curt.) Sacc. Mycotaxon 73: 477-491.

Moser, M. 1983. Keys to agarics and boleti. S. Plant, trans., G. G. Kibby, ed. (Phillips, Tonbridge). 535 pp.

Peck, C. H. 1892. Report of the State Botanist. Rep. (Annual) Regents Univ. State New York New York State Mus. 44: 115-187.

Thiers, H. D. 1982. The Agaricales of California. 1. Amanitaceae. (Mad River, Eureka). 53 pp. + pl.

Tulloss, R. E. 1984. Distribution and taxonomic notes on Amanita mutabilis. Mycologia 76: 555-558.

_____. 1986. What is the mushroom North Americans have been calling Amanita caesarea? Bull. Boston Mycol. Club 41: 10-13. [Republished: NJMA News 18(4): 9-13.]

_____. 1988. Amanita sinicoflava: a new species from eastern North America. Mycotaxon 32 421-431.

_____. 1990. Amanita salmonescens -- a new species from the southeastern United States. Mycotaxon 38: 125-132.

_____. 1990. Amanita crenulata -- history, taxonomy, distribution, and poisonings. Mycotaxon 39: 393-405.

_____. 1991. Amanita morrisii -- history, taxonomy, and distribution. Mycotaxon 40: 281-286.

_____. 1993. Amanita pachysperma, Amanita subvirginiana, and Amanita virginiana (taxonomy and distribution) with notes on description of the lamella trama in Amanita. Mycotaxon 49: 449-475.

_____. 1994. Type studies in Amanita section Vaginatae I: Some taxa described in this century (studies 1-23) with notes on description of spores and refractive hyphae in Amanita. Mycotaxon 52: 305-396.

_____. 1994. Seminario sobre Amanita. Supporting materials for a seminar on Amanita. Univ. Autnoma Tlaxcala, Ixtacuixtla, Tlaxcala. 30 August - 3 September. 128 pp.

_____. 1995. Supporting materials for a seminar on Amanita, 2nd edition. Boston Mycological Club, 13 September 1995. 143 pp.

_____. 1996. Programa. Seminario sobre Amanita, 3rd edition. Soc. Mexicana Micol.; Facultad Ciencias, Univ. Nacional Autnoma Mxico; & Facultad Ciencias, Univ. Autnoma Edo. Mxico. 3 July - 10 July. 158 pp.

_____. 1998. Syllabus for a Seminar on Amanita, 4th edition. N. Amer. Mycol. Assoc. & Mycol. Soc. San Francisco. vi+184+ii pp.

_____. 1998 ["1997"]. Notes on Amanita crocea and phenetically related taxa and preliminary findings concerning some material determined as Amanita crocea in Mexico and the U.S.A. Boll. Gruppo Micol. G. Bresadola 40(2-3): 447-455.

_____ and D. T. Jenkins. 1985. Validation of Amanita longipes. Mycotaxon 22: 439-442.

_____ and _____. 1986. Notes on distribution of Amanita albocreata. Mycotaxon 26: 81-83.

_____ and J. E. Lindgren. 2005. Amanita aprica--a new toxic species from western North America. Mycotaxon 91: 193-205.

_____ and F. Massart. 1998. Quelques observations courtes et preliminaires sur Amanita asteropus and Amanita aestivalis. Doc. Mycol. 27(109-110): 73-76, 119, pl. 5 (figs. A-D).

_____, S. L. Stephenson, R. P. Bhatt and A. Kumar. 1995. Studies of Amanita (Amanitaceae) in West Virginia and adjacent areas of the mid-Appalachians. Preliminary results. Mycotaxon 56: 243-293.

Williams, E. M. 1899. Notes on amanitas. Asa Gray Bull. 7(4): 77-79.

_____. 1900. [untitled]. Asa Gray Bull. 8(5): 103-104.

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Last change of this page: 18 April 2010.
This page is maintained by R. E. Tulloss.
Copyright 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 by Rodham E. Tulloss.
Photographs of images lacking species pages copyright 2006, 2007, 2009 by Rodham E. Tulloss, with the exception of the following: expanding button of A. banningiana, which is copyright 2006 by Walter Sturgeon, and Amanita species 35, which is copyright 2006 by Geoffrey G. Kibby.
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