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DRAFT - date at bottom of page - Under active development - DRAFT

CHECKLIST OF AMANITA TAXA RECORDED FOR EAST TEXAS 
& GULF COAST REGIONS
OF LOUSIANA & MISSISSIPPI

Rodham E. Tulloss
P. O. Box 57, Roosevelt, NJ 08555-0057

David P. Lewis
262 CR 3062
Newton, TX 75966

Jay Justice
16055 Michele Drive
Alexander, AR  72002-9668


This page is dedicated to the memories of
Dr. William Cibula
& Dr. Alexander H. Smith.

In this list of Amanita species, there are now 101? taxa of which 43? appear to be undescribed in the literature. Among the remaining 58? taxa are some questionable determinations found in older literature.  We hope to purge incorrect determinations from the list, eventually. At the moment, however, we retain them as a goad to reach for greater clarity.

With regard to supraspecific taxa, this document follows (Corner and Bas, 1962) and (Bas, 1969).

Many good collections probably representing material that should be added to this list are among the collections of A. H. Smith in MICH. This list does not yet include taxa from Texas recorded in A. H. Smith's Ms. treatment of Amanita in the US--another problem that needs to be rectified.

Symbol key: A ”+” after a taxon name indicates it was collected at the 10th Texas Mycological Society foray in the Big Thicket National Preserve (October, 1986). An "@" in a similar position means the taxon was collected at the July, 1987 NAMA Gulf Coast Foray in southern Louisiana and Mississippi. An "H" in a similar position means the taxon was collected at the December, 1989 Harrison (MS) foray of the Gulf Coast Mycological Society. A "!" in a similar position means that the taxon was collected at the June, 2000 NAMA foray.

Photo credits not given on this page are to be found on individual species pages.

Background tile: Amanita levistriata

BIG THICKET ATBI

The Thicket of Diversity project (Big Thicket All-Taxa Biodiversity Inventory) was initiated in 2007 by the Big Thicket Association.  DPL is presently leader of the Fungus Taxonomic Working Group (TWIG) for this ATBI. Throughout this checklist, collecting site acronyms associated with the Thicket of Diversity project are in bold face type.

(t.b.d.)

COLLECTING SITES KEYS
[ Louisiana sites ]  [ Mississippi sites ]  [ Texas sites ]

EAST TEXAS GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION KEY

[ BTNP = Big Thicket National Preserve; SHNF = Sam Houston National Forest ]

T - no locality, eastern Texas
BCR - Beech Creek Unit, BTNP, Tyler Co.
BCSA - Big Creek Scenic Area, SHNF, San Jacinto Co.
BEAU - Beaumont Unit, BTNP, Hardin, Jefferson & Orange Cos.
BLKW - Bleakwood, Newton Co.
BMNT - Beaumont, Jefferson Co.
BSCC - Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, BTNP, Hardin, Polk & Tyler Cos.
BSCR - Big Sandy Creek Unit, BTNP, Polk Co.
BUNA - Buna, Jasper Co.
BURR - Burroughs Park, east of Tomball, Harris Co.
CALD - Caldwell, Burleson Co.
CAN - Canyonlands Unit, BTNP, Tyler Co.
CHLA - Chain-of-Lakes Resort, Liberty Co.
CRNT - Canyon Rim Nature Trail, Newton Co.
FORL - Forest Lake Experimental Forest, Tyler Co.
HCS - Hickory Creek Savannah Unit, BTNP, Tyler Co.
IEME - Inland Eastex Mill, Evadale, Jasper Co.
JASP - Jasper, Jasper Co. [excluding Martin Dies State Park]
JHK - John H. Kirby State Forest, Tyler Co.
LANR - Lance Rosier Unit, BTNP, Hardin Co.
LEWC - Lewis Chapel, Co. Rd. 4045, Sand Ridge Cemetery Rd., Newton Co.
LNRC - Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, BTNP, Hardin, Jasper & Orange Cos.
LOBL - Loblolly Unit, BTNP, Liberty Co.
MARD - Martin Dies State Park, Jasper, Jasper Co.
MCC - Menard Creek Corridor Unit, BTNP, Hardin, Liberty & Polk Cos.
MILC - Mill Creek Cemetery, northern Newton Co.
NBBG - Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Bay Gall Unit, BTNP, Hardin Co.
PTAR - Port Arthur, Jefferson Co.
RELS - Roy E. Larsen Sandyland Sanctuary, ca. Kountze, Hardin Co.
SCRP - Scrapping Valley, Pineland, Newton Co.
SILS - Silsbee, Hardin Co., TX
TAMU - Texas A. & M. University, College Station, Brazos Co.
TC - Turkey Creek Unit, BTNP, Tyler & Hardin Cos.
THWA - Turkey Hill Wilderness Area, Angelina National Forest, San Augustine Co.
UNRC - Upper Neches River Corridor Unit, BTNP, Jasper & Tyler Cos.
VCC - Village Creek Corridor Unit, BTNP, Hardin Co.
VCSP - Village Creek State Park, ca. Lumberton, Hardin Co.
VID - Vidor, Orange Co.

COASTAL LOUISIANA GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION KEY

L - no locality, southern Louisiana
L-ACNC - Acadian Nature Ctr., Lafayette, Lafayette Parish
L-BRVD - Brady Rd. area, Vernon District, Kisatchie National Forest, Vernon Parish
L-FRBC - Friendship Baptist Church, ca. Pine Preserve, Evangelina Parish
L-HONI - Honey Island Swamp Nature Trail, St Tammany Parish
L-LKMA - Lk. Martin, St. Martin Parish
L-MOOR - Moore Pk., Lafayette, Lafayette Parish
L-NLLV - New Llano, Vernon Parish
L-PRW - Pearl River Wildlife Management Area, St. Tammany Parish
L-TPC - Talbert-Pierson Cemetery, Victor Martin Rd., Vernon Parish

COASTAL MISSISSIPPI GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION KEY

M - no localitiy, southern Mississippi
M-BCRT - Black Creek Tr., Perry Co.
M-BCRW - Black Creek Wilderness Area, Perry Co.
M-CHCR - Choctaw Creek woods, ca. Saucier, Harrison Co.
M-CLKD - ca. Clarksdale, ? Co.
M-CYCR - Cypress Crk. Landing, Black Creek Wilderness Area, Perry Co.
M-DNFH - DeSoto National Forest, Harrison Co.
M-HARC - no locality given, Harrison Co.
M-HARS - ca. Saucier, Harrison Experimental Forest, Harrison Co.
M-HARX - Harrison Experimental Forest, Harrison Co.
M-HENL - Henleyfield, Pearl River Co.
M-MCCO - McComb, Pike Co.
M-PARP - Parker Pond/Lake, Pascagoula River Wildlife Management Area, Jackson Co.
M-PRVC - Pacagoula River bottoms, Van Cleave, Jackson Co.
M-PRWM - Pascagoula River Wildlife Management Area, Jackson Co.
M-TUXT - Tuxachanie Trail, DeSoto National Forest, Harrison Co.
M-WAVA - between Wade & Van Cleave, Jackson Co.
M-WIGG - ca. Wiggins, Black Creek Wilderness Area, Perry Co.

HERBARIA OF DEPOSIT

CSU - Oklahoma Central State University, Edmond
DPL - personal herbarium of David P. Lewis DTJ - personal herbarium of Dr. David T. Jenkins, University of Alabama, Birmingham
F - Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago
MICH - University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
RET - personal herbarium of R. E. Tulloss

TAXONOMIC PART

Links to listings for sections of the genus Amanita: Amanita  Casesareae  Vaginatae  Lepidella  Amidella  Phalloideae  Validae


Subgenus Amanita (Spores inamyloid.)
Section Amanita (Stipe bearing a basal bulb. NOTE: Do not confuse with cupulate volval remains on nonbulbous stipe base.)
[ sectional links ]  [  top ]  [ meaning of biometric variables ]  [ bibliography ]  [ Amanita Studies home ]  [ checklists & keys page ]

1.

  1. farinosa Schwein. @!
    Colls.: DPL 8996; RET 7-16-87-F
    Locs.: CAN, M-WPRM
    Lit.: COK17, LMC81, WS85, JE86
    Spores: [160/8/8] (6.0-) 6.5 - 8.8 (-10.5) (5.2-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-9.0) m, (L = (6.8-) 7.1 - 8.0 m; L = 7.4 m; W = 5.8 - 6.4 (-6.5) m; W = 6.1 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.08 - 1.38 (-1.47); Q = 1.15 - 1.27 (-1.31); Q = 1.22).  [ image ]

  2. gemmata sensu auct. SE USA
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: TMS86, WS85, MM92
    Probable incorrect determination.

    3. Amanita levistriata


  3. levistriata Dav. T. Jenkins @!
    Colls.: DPL 4623, 4689, 4706, 4772, 5440 (F); RET 7-16-87-D, -I, 7-17-87-C, -D, -H, 7-18-87-E, -I, 6-10-00-C
    Locs.: FORL, RELS, M-BCRT, M-PARP, M-PRWM, M-WAVA
    Lit.: JE88, LCI00
    Formerly called "sp. T14."  Spores: [80/4/4] (6.7-) 7.8 - 9.3 (-9.97) (5.5-) 6.3 - 7.8 (-9.5) m; Q = 1.0 - 1.31; Q = 1.11.  Known from as far north as the SE corner of Missouri. 
    [ image ]

    4.

  4. multisquamosa Peck
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: JE86
    =A. pantherina var. multisquamosa (Peck) Dav. T. Jenkins =A. cothurnata G. F. Atk. Spores: [72/4/4] (6.6-) 7.0 - 11.2 (-15.0) (5.2-) 5.6 - 8.4 (-8.7) m, (L = 7.8 - 9.8 m; L = 8.8 m; W = 6.3 - 7.1 m; W = 6.7 m; Q = (1.05-) 1.12 - 1.50 (-1.58); Q = 1.22 - 1.39; Q = 1.31).  [ image ]  

    5.

  5. muscaria subsp. flavivolvata Singer
    Colls.:
    Locs.: ?M-HARS, ?M-HARX
    Lit.: WS85, JE85, TU05
    A number of collections sent to RET under this name in the past have proven to be A. muscaria var. persicina.  Therefore, the distribution of subsp. flavivolvata in the study region may not be as clearly understood as was thought in the recent past.  Spores: ? 
    [ image ]


    6.

  6. muscaria var. persicina Dav. T. Jenkins H
    Colls.: RET 12-2-89-A, -B, -C
    Locs.: M-HARC, M-HARS
    Lit.: LMC81, JE86, TMS86
    Apparently, the dominant muscarioid taxon of the southeastern USA.  In the northern limit of its known range, this species overlaps with the range of the yellow muscarioid taxon of northeastern North America presently known as A. muscaria var. guessowii.  Very large collections (thousands of basidiomes) known from Harrison, MS site. Spores: [305/15/11] (8.0-) 9.4 - 12.7 (-18.0) (5.5-) 6.5 - 8.5 (-11.1) m, (L = (9.8-) 10.0 - 12.1 (-12.3) m; L = 10.8 m; W = (6.8-) 6.9 - 8.0 (-8.1) m; W = 7.4 m; Q = (1.19-) 1.29 - 1.69 (-2.25); Q = (1.36-) 1.38 - 1.60 (-1.69); Q = 1.48).  [ image ]


    7.

  7. parcivolvata (Peck) E.-J. Gilbert
    Colls: DPL 5682, 5699, 5827
    Locs.: BLKW
    Lit.: JE86
    Exannulate, yellow-powdered stipe.  Range extends into NE New Jersey, at least; much more common in the southeastern states of the U.S.  Spores: [87/5/4] (8.4-) 9.1 - 11.5 (-12.6) (5.6-) 6.3 - 7.9 (-8.0) m, (L = 9.9 - 10.9 m; L = 10.4 m; W = 6.7 - 7.3 m; W = 7.0 m; Q = (1.26-) 1.31 - 1.64 (-1.67); Q = 1.38 - 1.55; Q = 1.48).
    [ image ]


  8. pubescens sensu Coker
    Colls.: DPL 8535
    Locs.: BUNA
    Lit.: COK17, JE77, LMC81
    Spores: [40/2/1] (9.3-) 9.5 - 11.5 (- 12.0) (6.5-) 6.8 - 8.0 (-9.3) ) m, (L = 10.0 - 10.7 m; L' = 10.4 m; W = 7.4 - 7.6 m; W' = 7.5 m; Q = (1.28-) 1.31 - 1.50 (-1.53); Q = 1.37 - 1.41; Q' = 1.39).  Dried material, photos, and information from Dr. Clark L. Ovrebo (CSU) indicate that this taxon is present in eastern Oklahoma.   Coker's collections were from North Carolina.  Jenkins [JE77] considered this name a nomen dubium.  Nevertheless, Coker supplies a very clear macroscopic description of the fungus to which he applied Schweinitz's name.


    9.

  9. roseitincta (Murrill) Murrill @!
    Colls.: DPL 2595, 3167, 3720, 5780, 8953, 9107; RET 10-26-85-B, 6-10-00-E
    Locs.: BCSA, BLKW, FORL, LANR, NBBG, SILS
    Lit.: WS85, TMS86
    =komarekensis Jenkins & Vinopal.  Spores: [60/3/3] (8.2-) 9.0 - 11.5 (-14.4) (5.9-) 6.0 - 8.5 (-10.0) m, (L = 9.7 - 10.4 m; L' = 10.0 m; W = 6.9 - 7.6 m; W' = 7.2 m; Q = (1.15-) 1.21 - 1.66 (-1.74); Q = 1.38 - 1.44; Q' = 1.40).  Rather commonly collected in the SE US, but sometimes not recognized.  Known NE limit of range is in the coastal plain region of central New Jersey.  Underside of partial veil is often pink at first.  All pigments altering rapidly in sunlight.  [ image ]


    10.

  10. species S1 [cf.]
    Colls.: A. E. Bessette 11030(RET)
    Locs.: M-MCCO
    Lit.: -
    A pale yellow, tuberculate striate entity with ephemeral partial veil.  Spores: [100/5/5] (8.4-) 8.7 - 11.2 (-12.2) (5.9-) 6.2 - 7.3 (-7.7) m, (L = 9.3 - 10.7 m; L = 9.9 m; W = 6.5 - 6.8 m; W = 6.7 m; Q = (1.27-) 1.34 - 1.66 (-2.0); Q = 1.42 - 1.60; Q = 1.48).  Before the bulb is unearthed, this taxon gives the strong impression of being a member of sect. Vaginatae[ image ]

  11.  species T22 @
    Colls.: RET 7-18-87-F, -G
    Locs.: M-BCRW, M-CYCR
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 13 - 24 mm wide, pale beige, planoconvex; context beige under pileipellis, else white, less than 3.5 mm thick over stipe; margin striate (about 30 - 55% of radius); universal very pale, faintly sordid beige, as easily removed warts.  Lamellae free, subcrowded, pale cream in mass, white in side view, unchanging, up to 2 mm broad; lamellulae truncate to subtruncate.  Stipe 28 - 41 1.5 - 2.5 mm, white to pale beige, tannish from handling, minutely fibrillose (10 lens), minutely longitudinally striatulate (10 lens); exannulate; bulb 3 - 6 4 - 7.5 mm, subglobose, subabrupt; context white; universal veil not evident.  Spores: [40/2/2] (7.5-) 8.0 - 10.0 (-10.8) (5.2-) 5.8 - 7.0 (-7.2) m, (L = 8.6 - 9.0 m; L = 8.8 m; W = 6.2 - 6.3 m; W = 6.2 m; Q = 1.26 - 1.50 (-1.54); Q = 1.38 - 1.44; Q' = 1.41).



Section Caesareae (Stipe lacking a bulb at its base; having an annulus.)
[ sectional links ]  [  top ]
  [ meaning of biometric variables ]  [ bibliography ]  [ Amanita Studies home ]  [checklists & keys page ]

12.

  1. arkansana Rosen @
    Colls.: DPL 5302, 6321, ?6333, 6358; RET 10-26-85-A, 7-16-87-C, -G
    Locs.: BLKW, FORL, TC, M-PRWM
    Lit.: TMS86
    = species T11.  Orange-brown disk with yellowish margin.  Often rather fragile at maturity.  Apparently limited to the S E U.S. states.  Spores: [20/1/1] (7.0-) 7.7 - 9.4 (-9.8) 5.6 - 7.0 m, (L = 8.6 m; W = 6.3 m; Q = 1.17 - 1.47 (-1.68); Q = 1.37). 
    [ image ]

    13.


  2. jacksonii Pomerleau
    Colls.: DPL 6186 (mixed with sp. T31), ?6334, ?6357
    Locs.: ?BLKW, IEME
    Lit.: JE86, LMC81, WS85?, TMS86
    =umbonata Pomerleau =caesarea sensu auct. amer.  Spores: [317/15/11] (7.0-) 7.8 - 10.0 (-12.1) (5.2-) 6.0 - 7.5 (-8.7) m, (L = (8.1-) 8.4 - 9.5 m; L = 8.8 m; W = (6.0-) 6.3 - 7.3 m; W = 6.7 m; Q = (1.11-) 1.20 - 1.52 (-1.63); Q = 1.25 - 1.40 (-1.42); Q = 1.32). 
    [ image ]

    14.


  3. spreta (Peck) Sacc. @
    Colls.: RET 7-14-87-H (typo?)
    Locs.: ?
    Lit.: TMS86
    Uncommon.  Cap ranges from cream to brownish gray to grayish brown, often virgate.  Partial veil often grayish as it ages.  Universal veil at stipe base usually a rather short saccate volva.  Spores: [134/7/7] (7.7-) 9.4 - 13.1 (-15.5) (5.2-) 5.9 - 7.8 (-9.0) m, (L = 9.9 - 12.4 m; L = 11.4 m; W = 6.2 - 7.3 m; W = 6.9 m; Q = (1.40-) 1.48 - 1.83 (-2.04); Q = 1.60 - 1.76; Q = 1.65).  Spores (from the type per Jenkins): 10.2 - 13.3 5.5 - 7.0 m; Q = 1.86.  [ image ]

  4. species T24 @
    Colls.: Dr. D. T. Jenkins has a collection.
    Locs.: Mississippi
    Lit.: -
    Amanita spreta-like, brown pileus with fragile, graying, submembranous partial veil.)

  5. species T31
    Colls.: DPL 5908, 6010, 6060, 6189
    Locs. IEME
    Lit.:-
    affin. sp. F11 (Florida checklist), affin. jacksonii.  Initially with brownish red or brownish red-orange pileus, margin quickly yellow, margin sometimes fading to yellow-white to whitish to white.  Stipe appears white in photographs (possibly with faint yellow scales) and has base attached to volva on sides of stipe, not only at bottom; universal veil with yellowish limbus internus.  Spores: [100/5/2] (7.3-) 7.6 - 10.6 (-14.1) (5.0-) 5.3 - 6.8 (-8.5) m, (L = 8.3 - 9.5 m; L' = 9.0 m; W = 5.6 - 6.5 m; W' = 6.0 m; Q = (1.30-) 1.33 - 1.67 (-1.92); Q = 1.46 - 1.54; Q' = 1.49).

    17.

  6. species T41
    Colls.: DPL 8082
    Locs.: LEWC
    Lit.: -
    [This taxon could be A. murrilliana Singer.]  Pileus 47 mm wide, dingy yellowish brown, plano-convex, moist, with slight umbo; margin stirate (to 30% of radius).  Lamellae free, close to subdistant, whitish, 4 mm broad; lamellulae in one tier.  Stipe 100 4 - 7 mm, whitish, staining/changing pinkish brown; context hollow; partial veil apical, white, membranous; universal veil white, sheathing.  Spores: [30/2/1](8.5-) 9.5 - 13.2 (-15.8) 6.7 - 8.1 (-11.0) m, (L = 11.5 m; L' = 11.5 m; W = 7.5 m; W' = 7.5 m; Q = (1.23-) 1.34 - 1.81 (-1.83); Q = 1.52; Q' = 1.52).  [ image ]


Section Vaginatae (Stipe lacking a bulb at its base and lacking an annulus.)
[ sectional links ]  [  top ]
  [ meaning of biometric variables ]  [ bibliography ]  [ Amanita Studies home ]  [checklists & keys page ]

To use the following table, the reader may wish to re-familiarize her/himself with definitons of the biometric variables that can reached through the third item in the above set of links. Because of the many unnamed taxa of sect. Vaginatae in the region of study, we offer here a rough method of finding species via a table of ranges of spore data averages for all listed taxa of the section:

Q = 1.03 - 1.06 L = 11.0 - 11.3 m W = 10.7 m u.v. friable
pil. gray-brown
species T1
Q = 1.04 L = 9.9 m W = 9.6 m pil. yellowish with
yellow-brown disk
species T5
Q = 1.04 - 1.07 L = 10.0 - 11.0 m W = 9.3 - 10.5 m u.v. friable
pil. gray-brown
species V3
Q = 1.05 - 1.11 L = 10.4 m W = 9.3 - 9.9 m pil. yellowish
olivaceous
species T6
Q = 1.07 L = 9.6 m W = 9.0 m pil. "grayish" species T39
Q = 1.08 L = 9.7 m W = 9.0 m pil. white or
whitish
species T38
Q = 1.08 - 1.12 L = 10.2 - 10.9 m W = 9.4 - 9.8 m pil. whitish or cream
with yellow-tan disc
species T36
Q = 1.08 L = 12.3 m W = 11.3 m u.v. friable
pil. dk. gray
w/ black disc
species T43
Q = 1.10 - 1.14 L = 10.5 - 11.5 m W = 9.5 - 10.1 m pil. "gray" species V1
Q = 1.13 L = 9.3 - 9.4 m W = 8.3 m pil. gray with darker
gray disc
species T16
Q = 1.13 L = 11.8 m W = 10.5 m pil. med. brown species T44
Q = 1.15 L = 9.0 m W = 7.8 m pil. suggests A. fulva species T40
Q = 1.28 - 1.35 L = 9.6 m W = 7.1 - 7.5 m pil. grayish, small species T42
Q = 1.29 L = 11.1 m W = 8.6 m pil. pale yellowish
beige
species T23
Q = 1.33 - 1.40 L = 10.6 - 11.4 m W = 8.0 - 8.3 m pil. dark gray,
nearly black
species T10

  1. cf. fulva
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: JE86, TMS86
    Improbable determination.  The name may be applied to more than one taxon in the region of study.   See species T40, below. 
    [ spore data table ]


  2. inaurata sensu Peck !
    Colls.: DPL ?5075; RET ?6-10-00-G
    Locs.: ?FORL, ?NBBG
    Lit.: LMC81, WS85, TMS86
    Also as ceciliae and "affin. inaurata"; probably = species V3.  The name may be applied to more than one taxon in the region of study. Spores (of northern specimens of species V3. See also species T1, below.): [80/4/4] (7.7-) 9.4 - 12.0 (-14.2) (7.0-) 8.8 - 11.2 (-13.5) m, (L = 10.0 - 11.0 m; L' = 10.5 m; W = 9.3 - 10.5 m; W' = 10.0 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.11 (-1.12); Q = 1.04 - 1.07; Q' = 1.06). The range of this species apparently extends into southeastern Canada.   [ spore data table ]


  3. vaginata sensu auct. SE USA
    Colls.: DPL ?5190, ?5245, ?5253, ?5928, ?6923, ?6924, ?7093, ?8160
    Locs.: ?BLKW, ?CALD, ?FORL, ?TC, ?THWA, ?VID
    Lit.: WS85, JE86, TMS86
    Includes "livida" and "affin. vaginata."   [ spore data table ]



    21.

  4. species T1 + Colls.: DPL 8768, RET 10-25-86-B
    Locs.: LANR
    Lit.: -
    Close to inaurata sensu Pk. or ceciliae sensu Dav. T. Jenkins;  grayish-brown, sometimes with pallid margin.  Similar to species V3.  Spores: [40/2/2] (9.1-) 9.8 - 12.2 (-14.0) 9.1 - 11.9 (-12.9) m, (L = 11.0 - 11.3 m; L' = 11.2 m; W = 10.7 m; W' = 10.7 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.10 (-1.11); Q = 1.03 - 1.06; Q' = 1.04).  Photo by RET. 
    [ image ]   [ spore data table ]

  5. species T2 +!
    Colls.: RET 6-10-00-A [NAMA 2000 voucher #043 (F)], -M
    Locs.: NBBG
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 98 mm wide, rich brown, especially dark over disc, progressively somewhat paler toward margin, campanulate at first, with marked umbo; context 7 mm thick over stipe, off white except gray in umbo, brownish gray in insect damage; margin striate (% of pileus radius).  Lamellae free, brownish white in mass, white in side view, 6.5 mm broad, marginate (pale brown); lamellulae truncate or truncate with tooth at context, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful.  Stipe 172 11 mm, pale brownish gray, with surface breaking up into gray fibrils on pallid ground here and there, longitudinally striatulate; exannulate; universal veil saccate, about 41 mm tall, membranous, white inside and out.   Spores: ?[ spore data table ]


    23.


  6. species T5 +
    Colls.: RET 10-25-86-H
    Locs.: BTNP
    Lit.: -
    Pileus small, yellowish with yellow-brown disk, subconic at first, flaring upward in age; margin striate.  Lamellae ?.  Stipe ?, slender; exannulate; universal veil saccate, membranous, sheathing.  Spores: [20/1/1] (8.4-) 8.7 - 11.9 (-12.6) 8.4 - 10.8 (-12.6) m, ( L = 9.9 m; W = 9.6 m; Q = 1.0 - 1.10; Q = 1.04).  See species T32 and species T36, below. 
    [ image ]   [ spore data table ]

    24.

  7. species T6 !
    Colls.: DPL 217(DTJ), 1773, 1798, 1944, 3143, 3502; RET 6-9-00-B [NAMA 2000 voucher #173 (F)]
    Locs.: MARD
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 55 - 68 mm wide, palely zonate, sordid to olivaceous bands of yellow and honey-tan or having olive (or olivaceous yellow or olivaceous tan) disc and paler yellowish margin, becoming more sordid overnight in wax paper, plano convex, umbonate; margin striate (30 - 50% of pileus radius); context off-white to white, 2.5 - 6.5 mm thick above stipe; universal veil absent.  Lamellae free, crowded, very pale yellowish white to sordid yellowish cream in mass, cream to very pale cream in side view, 3.5 - 5 mm broad; lamellulae truncate to excavate truncate, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths (sometimes with few less than half the pileus radius in length), plentiful.  Stipe 120 - 152 6.5 - 8 mm, off-white to somewhat concolorous with pileus to pale buff, with surface fibrils (sometimes creating a "snake skin," "flame," or "zebroid" pattern) darkening from handling; exannulate; universal veil saccate, sheathing, whitish to yellow white, 25 - 42 13 - 13.5 mm, white, with small limbus internus near point of sac's attachment to stipe, becoming completely detached from stipe (then may be difficult to collect) .  This species is distinguished from A. sinicoflava Tulloss by its often zonate pileus, its non-graying volva, and (consequently) different volval tissue. DPL has called it "#217."  Spores: [60/3/3] (7.6-) 9.68 - 11.3 (-12.3) (7.0-) 8.6 - 10.5 (-11.0) m, (L = 10.4 m; L' = 10.4 m; W = 9.3 - 9.9 m; W' = 9.6 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.03 - 1.15 (-1.23); Q = 1.05 - 1.11; Q' = 1.09).  This species has been found as far north as Ha Ha Tonka St. Pk., Missouri.  Photograph by RET (Missouri). [ image ]  [ spore data table ]


    25.


  8. species T10 @!
    Colls.: NAMA 2000 voucher 249(F); DPL 6923, 8148, 8997A, 9093?
    Locs.: BLKW, NBBG
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 29 - 36 mm wide, dark gray, nearly black, sometimes virgate, sometimes shiny over striations; context white, unstaining, about 2 mm thick above stipe; margin striate (40% - 55% of pileus radius); universal veil absent.  Lamellae free, close to crowded, whitish to off-white in side view, sometimes becoming grayish white with age, about 2 mm broad; lamellulae not plentiful, truncate, of diverse lengths, unevenly distributed.  Stipe 63 - 85 3 - 6 mm, white, becoming sordid from handling, pulverulent in top 20 (appox.) mm, elsewhere bearing very fine raised fibrils (10 lens); exannulate; universal veil white on exterior, saccate, membranous, barely attached at base of stipe, sometimes entirely separated.  Spores: [66/4/3] (8.5-) 9.5 - 12.5 (-13.5) (7.0-) 7.3 - 9.0 (-11.0) m, (L = 10.6 - 11.4 m; L' = 11.0 m; W = 8.0 - 8.3 m; W' = 8.2 m; Q = (1.12-) 1.20 - 1.49 (-1.64); Q = 1.33 - 1.40; Q' = 1.35).  This species has been found as far north as Ha Ha Tonka St. Pk., Missouri.  Upper photo by DPL; Photoshop® edit by RET.  Lower photo by RET (Missouri). 
    [ image ]  [ spore data table ]

  9. species T16 @!
    Colls.: DPL 9092; RET 7-17-87-A, ?6-9-00-C
    Locs.: LANR, L-PRW, L-HONI
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 24 - 35 mm wide, gray with darker gray in center; context pale sordid white, 2 - 3 mm thick over stipe; margin with striations (ca. 55-80% of radius); universal veil absent or as single patch.  Lamellae free, whitish or slightly sordid, about 3.5 mm broad; lamellulae truncate, irregularly distributed.  Stipe 40 2 - 2.5 mm, white, minutely longitudinally striatulate; exannulate; universal veil white on exterior, saccate, membranous, about 8 mm high, connected just at stipe base.  Spores: [40/2/2] (7.9-) 8.1 - 10.5 (-12.0) (6.0-) 7.0 - 9.3 (-11.0) m, (L = 9.3 - 9.4 m; L' = 9.4 m; W = 8.3 m; W' = 8.3 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.01 - 1.25 (-1.40); Q = 1.13 - 1.14; Q' = 1.13).  [ spore data table ]

  10. species T23 @
    Colls.: RET 7-18-87-H
    Locs.: M-DNFH, M-TUXT
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 52 mm wide, pale yellowish beige pileus, with very slight umbo; context white (except for pale tan just below pileipellis), 4 mm thick.  Lamellae free to narrowly adnate, close to subcrowded, pale orangish cream in mass, off-white in side view, 4 mm broad; lamellulae truncate.  Stipe 111 8.5 mm, off-white below flocculence, having dense flocculence concolorous with pileus; exannulate; universal veil remaining as submembranous patches on lower stipe, white.  Spores: [20/1/1] (9.4-) 10.1 - 11.9 (-15.7) 7.7 - 9.1 (-11.2) m, (L = 11.1 m; W = 8.6 m; Q = (1.14-) 1.20 - 1.45; Q = 1.29).  [ spore data table ]

  11. species T30
    Colls.: J. Justice 24.xi.1991 s.n., 17.x.1993 s.n.
    Locs.:
    Lit.: -
    Pileus deep red-brown (7E5-6 over disk, 6E5-6 toward margin); universal veil with pinkish orange tints, leaving patches on pileus (becoming grayish) and on lower stipe, sometimes with very reduced cupulate volva; stipe with pinkish orange fibrils that darken with maturity to dirt brown.  Spores: ?.  Could this be A. dulciarii Tulloss nom. prov.?   [ spore data table ]

  12. species T32 !
    Colls.: RET 6-9-00-A
    Locs.: MARD
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 42 mm wide, yellow to brownish yellow over disc, with white margin, not umbonate; margin striate (40%-45% of pileus radius); universal veil as easily removed small white patch.  Lamellae crowded, cream in mass; lamellulae truncate to subtrucate, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful.  Stipe 98 8 mm, off-white, pinkish-brownish in age, subfloccose to subfibrillose, longitudinally striatulate; exannulate; universal veil saccate, membranous, white on exterior surface, white above and yellow below on inner surface, attached only at stipe base.  Spores: ?.  See species T5, above, and species T36, below.  [ spore data table ]

  13. species T33 !
    Colls.: RET 6-10-00-A [NAMA 2000 voucher #177 (F)]
    Locs.: RELS
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 53 mm wide, pale grayish brown with notably darker gran-brown to brown disc and slightly darker gray brown over area of striatons, umbonate, context off-white except gray under pileipellis in umbo and paler gray elsewhere under pileipellis, 4 mm thick over stipe; margin striate (45% of pileus radius); universal veil absent.  Lamellae free, crowded, off-white in mass, white to pale grayish white in side view, 3.5 mm broad; lamellulae truncate, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful.  Stipe 151 7 mm, off-white, smooth in upper 3/4, below this with pale grayish fibrils forming upward pointing squamules; exannulate; universal veil saccate, membranous, white on both surfaces, 42 12 mm, with limbus internus thin, with very uneven free edge, unusually long, attached to main volval limb at point of that element's attachment to stipe.  Spores: ?[ spore data table ]

  14. species T35 !
    Colls.: RET 6-10-00-L [NAMA 2000 voucher #297 (F)]
    Locs.: ?
    Lit.: -
    [ spore data table ]


  15. 32.

  16. species T36
    Colls.: DPL 7375, 8959
    Locs.: BLKW, LANR
    Lit.: -
    Pileus 58 - 74 mm wide, whitish to cream to yellowish cream, with light brown or sordid yellow or yellowish avellaneous disc, moist, umbonate; context white, 4 - 7 mm thick over stipe; margin flaring with age, striate (with striations (30%-) 40 - 50% of pileus radius); universal veil infrequently as white patch over disc.  Lamellae free, close,4.5 - 6 mm broad, with fimbriate margin.  Stipe 91 - 143 7 - 10 mm, dull whitish; exannulate; universal veil saccate (e.g., 35 13.5 mm), ample, white (in one specimen, with some golden yellow patches, especially toward base), with limb 0.5 - 2 mm thick, with limbus internus not observed.  Odorless.  Spores: [101/4/4] (8.5-) 9.3 - 11.6 (-14.5) (8.0-) 8.6 - 11.0 (-12.6) m, (L = 10.2 - 10.9 m; L' = 10.5 m; W = 9.4 - 9.8 m; W' = 9.6 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.04 - 1.15 (-1.45); Q = 1.08 - 1.12; Q' = 1.09). Solitary; with Pinus or in Quercus-Carya forest.  This species has been found as far north as Ha Ha Tonka St. Pk., Missouri. See species T5 and species T32, above.   Photographs by RET (Missouri). 
    [ image ]  [ spore data table ]


  17. species T37
    Colls.: DPL 8074
    Locs.: MILC
    Lit.: -
    Pileus "medium yellow-brown."  Spores: [20/1/1] 8.5 - 10.5 (-10.6) (7.5-) 8.0 - 10.0 (-10.1) m, (L = 9.4 m; W = 8.6 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.05 - 1.15 (-1.25); Q' = 1.10).   [ spore data table ]

  18. species T38
    Colls.: DPL 8908
    Locs.: BLKW
    Lit.: -
    Pileus "white."  Spores: [20/1/1] (8.0-) 8.8 - 10.5 (-13.5) (6.8-) 8.0 - 9.6 (-12.7) m, (L = 9.7 m; W = 9.0 m; Q= (1.03-) 1.04 - 1.18 (-1.19); Q = 1.08).   [ spore data table ]

  19. species T39
    Colls.: DPL 7045, 9075
    Locs.: CRNT, TC
    Lit: -
    Pileus grayish, ca. 75 mm wide; stipe with dark fibrils (see sp. 46?).  Spores: [20/1/1] (8.0-) 8.5 - 10.6 (-11.0) (7.6-) 7.9 - 10.0 (-10.2) m, (L = 9.6 m; W = 9.0 m; Q = (1.01-) 1.03 - 1.12 (-1.14); Q = 1.07).  [ spore data table ]

  20. species T40
    Colls.: DPL 8957
    Locs.: LANR
    Lit: -
    Pileus suggesting "A. fulva."  Spores: [25/1/1] 8.5 - 9.5 (-10.1) (6.6-) 7.0 - 8.6 (-8.9) m, (L = 9.0 m; W = 7.8 m; Q = 1.08 - 1.28 (-1.36); Q = 1.15).  [ spore data table ]

  21. species T42
    Colls.: DPL 7368, 9093
    Locs.: BLKW, LANR
    Lit: -
    Pileus 30 mm wide, "grayish," viscid when wet; margin striate (up to 35% of radius).  Lamellae no notes.  Stipe 80 3 - 5 mm, white, decorated with small grayish white fibrils; universal veil saccate, white, sheathing.  Spores: [44/2/2] (8.3-) 8.5 - 10.6 (-11.0) (6.4-) 6.6 - 8.4 (-8.7) m, (L = 9.6 m; L' = 9.6 m; W = 7.1 - 7.5 m; W' = 7.3 m; Q = (1.19-) 1.20 - 1.48 (-1.50); Q = 1.28 - 1.35; Q' = 1.32).  [ spore data table ]

  22. species T43
    Colls.: RET 11-25-09-A
    Locs.: L-LKMA
    Lit: -
    Pileus dark gray, with black disc; margin striate; universal veil absent.  Lamellae becoming sordid with age.  Stipe thoroughly gray (dark cinereous); universal veil reportedly friable.  Spores: [20/1/1] (9.2-) 9.4 - 16.1 (-16.8) (8.6-) 8.9 - 14.7 (-14.9) m, (L = 12.0 m; W = 10.6 m; Q = 1.06 - 1.13 (-1.16); Q = 1.08).  Evaluation of spore volumes indicates that 2-spored, or even 1-spored basidia were present; hence, values above are probably high for an average mature specimen.  Removing four largest spores from the data would yield [16/1/1] (9.2-) 9.4 - 12.6 (8.6-) 8.9 - 11.2 (-11.9) m, (L = 11.3 m; W = 10.3 m; Q = 1.06 - 1.13 (-1.16); Q = 1.09).  [ spore data table ]

  23. species T44
    Colls.: RET 11-26-09-A
    Locs.: L-MOOR
    Lit: -
    Pileus medium brown; margin striate.  Lamellae no notes.  Stipe white; universal veil saccate, white, sheathing.  Spores: [20/1/1] (10.0-) 10.5 - 14.0 9.0 - 12.6 m, (L = 11.8 m; W = 10.5 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.05 - 1.21 (-1.29); Q = 1.13).  Evaluation of spore volumes indicates that 2-spore basidia were present; hence, values above are probably high for an average mature specimen.  Removing three largest spores from the data would yield [17/1/1] (10.0-) 10.5 - 12.9 (-13.3) 9.0 - 11.5 (-11.6) m, (L = 11.4 m; W = 10.2 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.05 - 1.21 (-1.29); Q = 1.12).  [ spore data table ]

  24. species cf. V1
    Colls.: DPL 9043
    Locs.: BSCR
    Lit.: -
    Pileus gray.  Spores: [100/5/2] (8.4-) 9.5 - 12.6 (-17.5) (7.0-) 8.4 - 11.2 (-12.9) m, (L = 10.5 - 11.5 m; L' = 11.0 m; W = 9.5 - 10.1 m; W' = 9.8 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.04 - 1.26 (-1.79); Q = 1.10 - 1.14; Q' = 1.13). Occurs as far north as Virginia.  [ spore data table ]


Subgenus Lepidella (Spores amyloid.)

Section Amidella  (Margin appendiculate -- at least at first.  Volva as a multilayered, thick-limbed, sac on a bulbless stipe base.  Many taxa in this section have the unusual combination of amyloid spores with a striate cap margin and truncate lamellae.  Species in this section often require microscopic examination for certain identification.  A frequent exception is species 50.  [RET has personal correct field ID rate of around 75% -- inadequate.]  Many species in this section will stain pinkish (sometimes very briefly) if collected in moist weather or otherwise in very fresh condition.  Toxicity of North American taxa of sect. Amidella is unknown.)
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  1. peckiana Kauffman in Peck @!
    Colls.: DPL 4013, 4270, ?4312, ?4993, ?5015, ?5188, ?5237, ?5751, ?7415, ?7887, ?8936; C. L. Ovrebo 4670 (CSU); RET 7-18-87-B
    Locs.: ?BLKW, ?FORL, ?LANR, LEWC, RELS, SILS, ?TC, ?L-BRVD, M-TUXT
    Lit.: -
    ?=cylindrisporiformis (Murrilll) Murrill ?=margarita (Murrill) Murrill. Formerly called both "species F8" (Florida checklist) and &"species T21." So far as is known, A. peckiana is the only species of sect. Amidella which has a membranous partial veil in the earliest stages of button expansion.  Spores: [40/2/2] (10.8-) 12.2 - 17.2 (-19.2) 4.8 - 5.9 (-6.3) m; L = 12.9 - 14.7 m; W = 5.1 - 5.7 m; Q = (1.83-) 2.05 - 3.44 (-3.69); Q = 2.26 - 2.90). The range of this species extends to northward to Michigan and eastward to the Atlantic Coastal Plain.


    40.


  2. pseudovolvata Tulloss nom. prov. @!
    Colls.: S. E. Harsch 300 (RET), 301 (RET), 302 (RET), 303 (RET), 306 (RET); DPL 4018, 4124, 8958, 9029; RET 7-14-87-F, -I, -L, -M, 7-15-87-B, 7-16-87-F, -I, 7-17-87-G, 7-18-87-A, 7-19-87-A
    Locs.: SILS, L, L-HONI, L-PRW, M, M-PARP, M-TUXT, M-WAVA
    Lit.: WS85
    ="species 41" (New Jersey Pine Barrens list).  Often labeled as "A. volvata" in the literature.  Common to extremely common.  Very similar to, but usually significantly smaller than, A. volvata and volvata var. elongata with narrower spores of intermediate Q; marginal striations very distinct upon emergence of the pileus from the volval sac; spores: [1317/65/54] (5.0-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-13.5) (3.8-) 4.5 - 6.0 (-7.8) m, (L = (7.6-) 8.5 - 10.6 (-11.0) m; L = 9.6 m; W = (4.5-) 4.8 - 5.9 (-6.5) m; W = 5.2 m; Q = (1.11-) 1.52 - 2.16 (-2.76); Q = (1.42-) 1.64 - 2.04 (-2.14); Q = 1.85).  [ image ]

  3. sagittaria Tulloss nom. prov. +
    Colls.: RET 10-25-86-E
    Locs.:
    Lit.: -
    ="speces F3
    " (Florida checklist)  Exannulate, flocculent stipe; copious sheathing universal veil; whole basidiocarp tends to show brick-red staining. Previously collected in Georgia. Spores: [20/1/1] (10.5-) 11.2 - 13.3 (-14.7) (3.1-) 3.5 - 4.5 m; L = 12.5 m; W = 3.8 m; Q = 2.95 - 3.50 (-4.29); Q = 3.34).


    42.


  4.   volvata (Peck) Lloyd @
    Colls.: S. Harsch 304 (RET), 305 (RET); H. D. Thiers 1874 (MICH); RET 7-16-87-E
    Locs.: L-HONI
    Lit.: -
    ="species T18."  Uncommon, but locally plentiful.  Larger and more robust than both its var. elongata and "A. pseudovolvata" and with a much denser layer of flocculence at the top of the stipe.  Colors from oxidation considerably more intense than in "A. peckiana."  Spores: [1223/61/45] (5.8-) 8.4 - 12.3 (-14.2) (4.5-) 5.2 - 7.2 (-9.0) m, (L = (8.6-) 9.0 - 11.8 (-12.4) m; L = 10.3 m; W = (5.1-) 5.5 - 6.8 (-7.6) m; W = 6.2 m; Q = (1.16-) 1.35 - 1.94 (-2.45); Q = (1.39-) 1.48 - 1.93 (-2.02); Q = 1.65).  [ image ]

Section Lepidella  (Cap margin appendiculate -- at least when young.  Stipe often, but not always, bearing a bulb.  Volva rarely limbate, never as a thick-limbed, multilayered sac on a bulbless stipe base.  A number of species in this section have been found to contain a non-nucleic amino acid that is a severe threat to the human kidney and liver.)  [Note: Also, see "species 6" under section Validae.]
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43.

  1.  abrupta Peck @
    Colls.: DPL 3301
    Locs.: TC
    Lit.: BAS69, JE86, LMC81, WS85, MS86
    Spores: [97/4/4] (6.1-) 7.2 - 9.0 (-10.7) (4.8-) 5.9 - 7.5 (-9.2) m, (L = 7.9 - 8.5 m; L = 8.1 m; W = 6.1 - 6.8 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.07-) 1.10 - 1.40 (-1.61); Q = 1.17 - 1.32; Q = 1.23).
    [ image ]


  2. alliacea (Murrill) Murrill
    Colls.: DPL ?5927 Locs.: ?THWA
    Lit.: BAS69
    Spores: ?.


    45.


  3.  atkinsoniana Coker Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: BAS69, LMC81, TMS86
    Includes "affin. atkinsoniana."  Uncommon.  Spores: [50/2/2] (8.0-) 8.7 - 10.5 (-13.0) 5.9 - 7.7 (-8.5) m, (L = 9.3 - 9.7 m; L = 9.5 m; W = 6.6 - 6.9 m; W = 6.7 m; Q = (1.18-) 1.25 - 1.64 (-1.67); Q = 1.41; Q = 1.41).  [ image ]


     46.


  4. chlorinosma (Peck in Austin) Lloyd Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: BAS69, TMS86
    (Spores: [85/4/4] (7.5-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-12.2) (4.5-) 4.7 - 6.5 (-7.5) m, (L = 8.5 - 10.2 m; L = 9.2 m; W = 5.1 - 6.1 m; W = 5.5 m; Q = (1.37-) 1.45 - 2.02 (-2.35); Q = 1.52 - 1.81; Q = 1.69).  [ image ]


     :47.


  5.  cinereoconia G. F. Atk. var. cinereoconia +@!
    Colls.: DPL 9062; RET 10-25-86-D, 7-17-87-F?
    Locs.:
    Lit.: BAS69, TMS86
    Spores: [40/2/2] (7.0-) 7.3 - 9.8 (-11.2) (3.8-) 4.2 - 4.9 (-5.9) m; L = 8.2 - 8.8 m; L = 8.5 m;W = 4.2 - 4.6 m; W = 4.4 m; Q = (1.62-) 1.71 - 2.18 (-2.49); Q< = 1.80 - 1.97; Q = 1.88). 
    [ image ]


    48.

  6. cokeri (E.-J. Gilbert & Khner) E.-J. Gilbert
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: BAS69, WS85
    (Spores: [95/5/4] (9.2-) 10.8 - 13.2 (-15.0) (5.5-) 6.5 - 8.7 (-9.5) m, (L = 11.4 - 12.7 m; L = 11.9 m; W = (6.9-) 7.8 - 8.1 m; W = 7.8 m; Q = (1.27-) 1.35 - 1.79 (-2.0); Q = 1.44 - 1.56 (-1.74); Q = 1.53).  [ image


    49.

  7. cylindrispora Beardslee !
    Colls.: Locs.: Lit.: =species 7.  This species is known at least as far north as the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Spores: [530/24/19] (7.8-) 11.5 - 15.8 (-24.5) (3.2-) 3.8 - 5.0 (-6.2) m, (L = (11.7-) 11.9 - 14.4 (-15.3) m; L = 13.3 m; W = 4.0 - 4.8 (-4.9) m; W = 4.3 m; Q = (1.94-) 2.40 - 3.81 (-5.10); Q = (2.44-) 2.55 - 3.55 (-3.60); Q = 3.11). 
    [ image ]


    50. 

  8.   daucipes (Mont.) Lloyd !
    Colls.: DPL 2239, 2331, 2323, 2814
    Locs.: BTNP, TC, VID
    Lit.: BAS69. TMS86
    Universal veil turns pink to salmon.  Often, a felted or subfelted piece of the universal veil's limbus internus is present at the base of the stipe, above the bulb.  Spores: [100/5/5] (8.0-) 9.1 - 11.5 (-13.8) (5.3-) 5.5 - 7.2 (-9.9) m, (L = 9.8 - 10.8 m; L = 10.2 m; W = 6.0 - 6.5 m; W = 6.2 m; Q = (1.22-) 1.48 - 1.82 (-1.93); Q = 1.57 - 1.68; Q = 1.64).  [ image ]


    51.

  9.  hesleri Bas
    Colls.: DPL 5631, 5667 (F), 5689, 5705; 18.vii.1993 DPL & S. Harsch s.n.
    Locs.: BLKW, M-CYCR, M-WIGG
    Lit.: BAS69, WS85, LCI00
    Universal veil remnants on the pileus can become very dark with age and exposure.  Spores: [260/12/7] (8.5-) 9.5 - 12.5 (-16.1) (4.8-) 5.1 - 6.5 (-7.8) m, (L =( 10.0-) 10.4 - 11.1 m; L = 10.7 m; W = (5.4-) 5.5 - 6.1 m; W = 5.9 m; Q = (1.50-) 1.60 - 2.18 (-2.70); Q = 1.74 - 1.95 (-2.08); Q = 1.84). 
    [ image ]


  10. cf. inodora ! Colls.: RET 6-10-00-D
    Locs.: RELS
    Lit.: BAS69
    Possibly "A. roanokensis sensu Murrill)."  (Spores: ?)


    53. 

  11. longipes Bas ex Tulloss & Dav. T. Jenkins !
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: BAS69, TUJ85
    Spores: [820/41/41] (7.2-) 9.8 - 14.0 (-21) (3.9-) 4.6 - 6.3 (-9.8) m, (L = (10.3-) 10.4 - 12.7 (-13.6) m; L = 11.8 m; W = (4.5-) 4.8 - 5.9 (-6.3) m; W = 5.4 m; Q = (1.50-) 1.75 - 2.63 (-3.50); Q = (1.85-) 1.94 - 2.48 (-2.51); Q = 2.20).  [See also specimen cataloged in RET as "species S2" from BTNP.]  [ image ]


    54.

  12.   microlepis Bas
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: BAS69, LMC81
    Diagnosis in LMC81 questionable, illus. seems to be abrupta; however, Hillhouse 184 (MICH) is definitely this species.] (Gills are cafe-au-lait.  Spores: [55/3/3] (8.2-) 8.4 - 10.8 (5.6-) 5.9 - 7.3 (-8.0) m, (L = 9.3 - 9.9 m; L = 9.5 m; W = 6.2 - 7.0 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.22-) 1.27 - 1.60 (-1.86); Q = 1.36 - 1.51; Q = 1.45).  [ image ]


    55.

  13.  mutabilis Beardslee @
    Colls.: DPL 4440, 7514; ?RET 7-15-87-A
    Locs.: CHLA, LEWC
    Lit.: BAS69, TU84, WS85
    Odor of anise, raspberry-sherbet staining reaction when cut or broken.  Spores: [195/9/8] (8.7-) 10.0 - 14.6 (-18.9) (5.0-) 6.0 - 8.0 (-12.6) m, (L = 11.0 - 12.6 (-13.8) m; L = 12.0 m; W = 6.6 - 7.6 (-8.3) m; W = 7.1 m; Q = (1.30-) 1.50 - 1.90 (-2.10); Q = (1.60-) 1.65 - 1.78; Q = 1.70).  The rightmost image is by David P. Lewis.  [ image ]


    56.

  14.  nauseosa (Wakef.) D. A. Reid
    Colls.: DPL 6117; RET 10-26-85-D
    Locs.: BMNT
    Lit.: BAS69, WS85
    =praegraveolens (Murrill) Murrill =malodora (Murrill) Murrill.  Spores: [529/25/16] (6.0-) 7.0 - 10.0 (-13.5) (4.9-) 6.1 - 8.2 (-11.1) m, (L = 7.4 - 9.4 (-9.6) m; L' = 8.4 m; W = (6.3-) 6.5 - 7.8 (-7.9) m; W' = 7.1 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.05 - 1.40 (-1.86); Q = (1.08-) 1.09 - 1.33 (-1.34); Q' = 1.18). 
    [ image ]


    57.

  15.  onusta (Howe) Sacc. @!
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: BAS69, WS85, TMS86
    Spores: [215/12/12] (7.0-) 8.0 - 11.0 (-13.0) (5.0-) 5.5 - 7.0 (-8.3) m, (L = 8.3 - 10.5 (-11.0) m; L = 9.4 m; W = 5.7 - 6.5 (-7.1) m; W = 6.1 m; Q = (1.14-) 1.28 - 1.85 (-2.21); Q = 1.35 - 1.65 (-1.84); Q = 1.52).  [ image ]


    58.

  16.  pelioma Bas @! Colls.: D. T. Jenkins 2791; DPL 2057, 3062, 3120; RET 6-10-00-F, -H
    Locs.: LEWC, NBBG, TC, M-BCRW
    Lit.: BAS69, JE86, TMS86
    (So far as is known, the only Amanita  in the region with blue-green stains in remains of the universal veil.  Spores: (9.0-) 10.0 - 12.5 (6.0-) 6.5 - 8.0 m; Q = 1.45 - 1.85; Q = 1.65). 
    [ image ]


    59.  

  17.  polypyramis (Berk. & Curt.) Sacc. +H
    Colls.: DPL 1214, 1403, 4439; ?RET 10-25-86-F, -I
    Locs.: T, CHLA, VID, M-HARC
    Lit.: BAS69, LMC81, WS85, TMS86
    Pileus can be the size of a dinner plate -- a very large fruiting body.  Spores: [285/13/11] (7.0-) 9.1 - 13.0 (-17.5) (5.2-) 5.9 - 7.7 (-9.5) m, (L = (9.0-) 10.0 - 12.1 m; L = 11.4 m; W = 6.5 - 7.2 (-7.4) m; W = 6.8 m; Q = (1.11-) 1.38 - 1.93 (-2.02); Q = (1.35-) 1.50 - 1.81; Q = 1.67). 
    [ image ]


    60.

  18.  praelongispora (Murrill) Murrill @!
    Colls.: RET 7-16-87-J, 6-8-00-A
    Locs.: VCSP, M-BCRW
    Lit.: BAS69, JE86, LMC81, TMS86
    Spores: [20/1/1] (10.5-) 11.2 - 12.9 (-16.4) 4.2 - 4.9 (-5.2) m; L 11.6 m; W = 4.6 m; Q = 2.29 - 2.56 (-3.15); Q = 2.53). 
    [ image ]


    61.  

  19.  ravenelii (Berk. & Curt.) Sacc.
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: BAS69, JE86
    The range of this species lies predominantly in the southeastern US.  Warts like hills with radial erosion on sides; bulb from top-shaped to irregular.  Spores: [285/13/11] (7.0-) 8.0 - 11.9 (14.0) (4.6-) 5.2 - 7.7 (-8.5) m, (L = (8.3-) 8.5 - 11.1 m; L = 9.7; W = 5.6 - 7.0 (-7.4) m; W = 6.3 m; Q = (1.23-) 1.33 - 1.81 (-2.50); Q = 1.46 - 1.64 (-1.81); Q = 1.54).)   [ image ]


    62.

  20.  rhoadsii (Murrill) Murrill var. rhoadsii @!
    Colls.: DPL 4310; RET 7-16-87-B, -H
    Locs.: RELS, M-BCRW
    Lit.: BAS69, JE86
    ="species T17"  Worth noting that sometimes the inflated cells in the volva on the pileus have umbrinous contents and that the values of Q are persistently low compared to material from Florida. Spores [combined Florida and Gulf Coast as of 2.ix.2000]: [85/3/3] (9.8-) 10.1 - 14.5 (-18.5) (3.5-) 3.8 - 4.8 µm, (L = 11.7 - 13.9 m; L' = 12.1 m; W = 4.1 - 4.3 m; W' = 4.3 m; Q = (2.22-) 2.40 - 3.49 (-4.14); Q = 2.66 - 3.25; Q' = 2.82).) 
    [ image ]


    63.  

  21.  rhopalopus Bas
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: BAS69, TMS86
    Uncommon to rare.  Bulb is often rooting, but with a distinct and rather abrupt terminus.  Occasionally, the bulb may be top-shaped.  Spores: [110/5/5] (7.3-) 8.0 - 10.9 (-12.5) (4.8-) 5.4 - 6.8 (-8.1) m, (L = 8.6 - 10.0 m; L = 9.2 m; W = 5.9 - 6.4 m; W = 6.1 m; Q = (1.19-) 1.32 - 1.745 (-1.88); Q = 1.46 - 1.61; Q = 1.52).)  [ image ]


  22.  roanokensis Coker !
    Colls.: RET 6-10-00-J
    Locs.: RELS
    Lit.: BAS69
    Spores: ?.


  23.  silvifuga Bas
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: BAS69, JE86
    Spores: [77/5/1] (8.0-) 8.2 - 11.0 (-13.5) 5.5 - 7.5 (-9.5) m, (L = 8.9 - 9.7 m; L' = 9.4 m; W = 6.2 - 6.6 m; W' = 6.4 m; Q = (1.18-) 1.32 - 1.64 (-1.83); Q = 1.42 - 1.51; Q' = 1.46).)


    66.

  24.  subcaligata (A. H. Sm. & P. M. Rea) A. H. Sm. ex Tulloss
    Colls.: DPL 3335
    Locs.: TAMU
    Lit.: BAS69, JE86
    =salmonea Thiers. Spores (from holotype): [60/3/1] (9.2-) 10.2 - 13.0 (-14.0) (7.0-) 7.8 -9.8 (-11.2) m, (L = 11.4 - 11.9 m; W = 8.7 - 9.1 m; Q = (1.09-) 1.14 - 1.42 (-1.47); Q = 1.31 - 1.32).) 
    [ image ]


    67.  

  25.  subsolitaria (Murrill) Murrill !
    Colls.: DPL 3215; RET 6-10-00-I (F?)
    Locs.: TC
    Lit.: BAS69
    = solitariiformis (Murrill) Murrill =crassifolia Bas nom. prov.. Both normal and yellow-staining specimens were found at the Beaumont foray. Moderately rooting, carrot-like bulb; usually a few forking gills can be found.  Spores: [596/27/27] (7.3-) 9.1 - 14.0 (-21) (3.5-) 4.2 - 5.2 (-6.5) m, (L = (8.9-) 9.6 - 12.7 (-13.6) m; L = 11.4 m; W = (4.1-) 4.3 - 5.1 m; W = 4.6 m; Q = (1.57-) 2.0 - 3.0 (-3.83); Q = (2.03-) 2.21 - 2.79 (-2.81); Q = 2.47).  This entity, apparently when infected by one or more imperfect fungi and/or bacteria, produces sterile or smaller-spored basidiocarps that become brilliant yellow or yellow-orange on exposure to air. In this condition, Q is highly variable.  Spores from material determined as A. crassifolia Bas nom. prov: [45/2/2] (6.6-) 8.7 - 11.5 (-14.0) (4.2-) 4.5 - 6.0 (-6.3) m, (L = 10.2 - 10.3 m; L = 10.2 m; W = 5.1 - 5.5 m; W = 5.3 m; Q = (1.47-) 1.72 - 2.22 (-2.50); Q = 1.89 - 1.99; Q = 1.95).)  [ image ]


    68.

  26.  thiersii Bas
    Colls.: DPL 600, 1403, 1485-(1499), 5629
    Locs.: T, BLKW, JASP, PTAR
    Lit.: BAS69, WS85, JE86, TMS86
    Spores: [20/1/1] (7.8-) 8.0 - 9.8 (-11.0) (7.0-) 7.2 - 9.0 (-10.0) m, (L = 8.7 m; W = 8.2 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.15 (-1.17); Q = 1.07) 
    [ image ]


    69.

  27.  westii (Murrill) Murrill
    Colls: DPL 4074, 8117
    Locs.: BLKW, SCRP
    Lit.: BAS69, TUL94, LCI00
    Spores: [140/6/4] (8.5-) 10.5 - 13.9 (-15.5) (5.0-) 6.0 - 7.8 (-8.2) m; L = 11.0 - 12.8 m; L' = 12.2 m; W = 6.6 - 7.3 m; W' = 6.9 m; Q = (1.42-) 1.53 - 2.0 (-2.18); Q = 1.67 - 1.87; Q' = 1.77) 
    [ image ]


  28.  species T12 @
    Colls.: RET 7-14-87-J
    Locs.: M-DNFH
    Lit.: -
    Medium size, fine gray pulverulence on cap and stipe, exannulate. Spores: [20/1/1] (6.6-) 7.0 - 9.1 (-10.1) (5.2-) 5.6 - 7.3 m; L = 8.2 m; W = 6.6 m; Q = (1.15-) 1.19 - 1.33 (-1.43); Q = 1.25)


  29.  species T13 @
    Colls.: Jenkins 2786 (DTJ)
    Locs.: M-PRVC
    Lit.: -
    White, saccate volva, but with thick inner floccose layer; important for boundary to section Amidella(?). Spores: [10/1/1] 10.47 - 12.38 (4.30-) 4.76 (-5.26) m; L = 11.22 m; W = 4.76 m; Q = 2.20 - 2.66; Q = 2.35)


  30.  species T26
    Colls.: RET 8-7-87-SM1
    Locs.: NBBG
    Lit.: -
    Entirely white with faint, slow yellowing; clamped basidia; small, detersile volval warts; collapsing submembranous, subapical annulus; clavate stipe; odor of chlorine; spores: [20/1/1] 8.4 - 10.5 (10.8) (5.2-) 5.6 - 6.3 m; L = 9.6 m; W = 5.9 m; Q = (1.33-) 1.49 - 1.88; Q = 1.64) NB: Why didn't I put this under chlorinosma?


  31.  species T29
    Colls.: DPL 3125
    Locs.:
    Lit.: -
    An immature specimen w/out spores.  Cap and stipe covered with white powdery universal veil; "chloride of lime smell"; stipe 180 11 - 13 mm, slightly rooting and tapered at base, bulbless; universal veil would place the entity in subsection Vittadiniae; photo suggests A. thiersii (above).)



Section Phalloideae (All regional taxa in this section should be assumed to contain deadly amatoxins (also called amanitins), although the concentration can vary greatly from one specimen to another even within a single species.  Soft to firm stipe bulb with limbate volva, not complexly layered; pileus margin not appendiculate.  Stipe always with a membranous (rarely felted in A. magnivelaris) partial veil.  Basidia usually rather short and always lacking basal clamps.
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74.

  1.  bisporigera G. F. Atk. +@!
    Colls.:
    Locs.: ?M-CLKD
    Lit.: LMC81, WS85, JE86, TMS86
    Common.  Often reported as "A. virosa" in US literature. As far as us known, the European A. virosa does not occur naturally in the Americas.  One collection from Virginia is molecularly similar to the European taxon and may have been introduced (unpublished data).  Contains deadly amatoxins.  Reacts brilliant yellow to 5% - 10% KOH solution.  Spores: [452/19/16] (5.2-) 7.2 - 9.9 (-11.0) (4.8-) 6.5 - 8.6 (-10.0) m, (L = (7.8-) 7.9 - 9.2 (-9.6) m; L = 8.4 m; W = (7.0-) 7.1 - 8.1 (-8.2) m; W = 7.5 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.25 (-1.70); Q = (1.05-) 1.06 - 1.18 (-1.20); Q = 1.11).  [ image ]


  2. elliptosperma G. F. Atk. @
    Colls.: DPL ?5929, ?5947; RET 7-14-87-G
    Locs.: ?THWA, ?M-DNFH
    Lit.:
    Formerly called "species T20"; in this list. At the moment, we are referring collections originally determined as "A. hygroscopica" to this entry and marking the relevant data with a question mark.  The name "A. verna" (see below) may have occasionally been used to reference this species in the literature.  Medium sized, white, pointed bulb, thin limbate volval. There are a number of similar species that are addressed on the species page for A. elliptosperma.  Contains deadly amatoxins.  The range of this species extends to at least central New York [state].  Spores [including type]: [807/35/30] (6.8-) 8.3 - 11.5 (-16.3) (4.8-) 5.8 - 8.0 (-11.0) m, (L = (8.7-) 8.8 - 10.8 (-11.5) m; L = 9.8 m; W = (5.5-) 6.0 - 7.7 (-8.0) m; W = 6.8 m; Q = (1.12-) 1.26 - 1.66 (-2.29); Q = (1.32-) 1.35 - 1.57 (-1.65); Q = 1.44).)



  3. suballiacea (Murrill) Murrill
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: TMS86
    Spores: ?.


  4. verna sensu auct. amer. orient.
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: LMC81, TMS86
    So far as is known, the European A. verna does not occur in the Americas.


  5. virosiformis (Murrill) Murrill !
    Colls.: RET 6-10-00-B [NAMA 2000 voucher 189 (F)]
    Locs.: ?
    Lit.: LMC81, TMS86
    =A. tenuifolia (Murrill) Murrill.)


    79.

  6.  species 33 +
    Colls.: RET 10-25-86-J
    Locs.:
    Lit.:
    Whitish to slightly sordid, small, suggesting bisporigera including yellow reaction to KOH and negative reaction to L-tyrosine, basidia 4-spored, but spores often broadly ellipsoid. Probably contains deadly amatoxins.  Known as far north as the New Jersey pine barrens. Molecular work will probably clarify the relationship of this taxon to A. bisporigera.  Spores: [20/1/1] (8.0-) 8.7 - 9.4 (-10.8) 6.6 - 8.4 (-8.7) m, (L = 9.0 m; W = 7.6 m; Q = (1.08-) 1.12 - 1.25 (-1.39); Q = 1.19).  [ image ]


  7.  species S4 +
    Colls.: RET 10-25-86-C, -L
    Locs.:
    Lit.: -
    White undecorated pileus, globose bulb with saccate universal veil, chlorine-type odor, pileus negative with KOH, tyrosinase-positive, laccase-positive only in immature basidiocarps, stature virosa- or verna-like, but with appendiculate margin and felted annulus with flocculent limbus internus becoming distributed flocculence on stipe. This entity has previously been encountered in South Carolina. Spores: [65/3/2] (7.3-) 8.4 - 10.8 (-11.9) (4.9-) 5.2 - 7.0 m; L = 9.0 - 9.6 m; L' = 9.3 m; W = 5.9 - 6.0 m; W' = 5.9 m; Q = (1.30-) 1.36 - 1.90 (-1.93); Q = 1.50 - 1.60; Q' = 1.54).


  8. species T19 @
    Colls.: RET 7-17-87-E, 7-18-87-C, -J
    Locs.: M-BCRW, M-CYCR
    Lit.: -
    Small, white, delicate, somewhat watersoaked appearance in pileus; very close to A. gwyniana except the volval limb seems thinner and the bulb is narrower than in Coker's description; spores: [40/2/2] (9.1-) 9.4 - 11.2 (-12.6) (6.3-) 6.6 - 7.7 (-8.7) m; L = L' = 10.5 m; W = 7.1 - 7.5 m; W' = 7.3 m; Q = (1.24-) 1.34 - 1.57 (-1.64); Q = 1.45 - 1.47; Q' = 1.46).


  9.  species T25 @
    Colls.: RET 7-18-87-D
    Locs.:
    Lit.: -
    Spores: [].


  10.  species T27
    Colls.: RET 1-30-89-A
    Locs.:
    Lit.: -
    This small white entity has some characters in common with A. pseudoverna (Murrill) Murrill; but has rather plentiful ovoid to broadly clavate inflated cells in the interior of the universal veil tissue on the bulb; it may be A. suballiacea; or it may(?) belong in section Lepidella. Spores: [25/1/1] (8.0-) 9.0 - 10.5 (-12.5) (7.0-) 7.2 - 9.0 m, (L = 9.6 m; W = 7.9 m; Q = 1.11 - 1.35; Q = 1.22).



Section Validae (Universal veil almost always friable, appearing as a small limb only in taxa with a marginate stipe bulb.  Stipe always annulate.  Pilei may be brightly colored.  Basidia usually rather short and always lacking basal clamps.  While some of the taxa in this section may not contain a hemolytic compound, a number of them do.  Therefore, ingestion of species in this section without thorough cooking is to be strongly discouraged.  Experimentation with eating amanitas is not a good idea at any rate.)
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84.

  1.  aestivalis Singer ex Singer !
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: LMC81
    Uncommon.  With habit resembling that of A. brunnescens; however, staining reaction is very slow.  Pileus is dominantly pure white with some yellowish tint over discb at times. At the moment this taxon is maintained distinct from A. brunnescens (below).  Spores: [200/9/6] (5.8-) 7.0 - 9.5 (-10.9) (5.0-) 6.8 - 8.8 (-10.5) m, (L = (7.6-) 7.9 - 8.6 m; L = 8.4 m; W = (7.2-) 7.5 - 8.0 m; W = 7.8 m; Q = (1.0-) 1.02 - 1.14 (-1.20); Q = 106 - 1.08 (-1.09); Q = 1.07).  
    [ image ]


    85.

  2. brunnescens G. F. Atk. @!
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: LMC81, TMS86
    =A. brunnescens var. pallida L. Krieg. Extremely common.  Spores: [35/2/2] (7.0-) 7.5 - 9.2 (-9.5) (6.5-) 7.0 - 8.5 (-9.2) m, (L = 8.2 - 8.7 m; L = m; W = 7.6 - 8.0 m; W = m; Q = (1.0-) 1.03 - 1.15 (-1.18); Q = 1.08; Q = 1.08).  [ image ]


  3.  citrina sensu auct. amer. orient. H
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: WS85, TMS86
    The European A. citrina (now correctly called A. bulbosa var. citrina) apparently does not exist in the Americas.  It is possible that all collections referred to this name in eastern North America actually represent f. lavendula, see below.


    87.  

  4. citrina f. lavendula (Coker) Vesel H
    Colls.: RET 12-2-89-I
    Locs.: M-CHCR
    Lit.: LMC81, JE86
    (Extremely common, although not always revealing any lavender coloring.  [To bring out the lavender color it often works to expose a fruiting body to near freezing (or just freezing) temperatures overnight.]  So far as is known, this taxon differs from A. citrina sensu auct amer. only by the tendency of its volva, pileipellis, context, etc. to turn lavender.  There is a possibility that the lavender form is produced by environmental effects; and that there is really only a single taxon involved.  Spores: [55/3/3] (6.3-) 6.4 - 8.0 (-8.8) (5.2-) 5.5 - 7.1 (-7.8) m, (L = 7.0 - 7.2 m; L = 7.1 m; W = 6.0 - 6.4 m; W = 6.2 m; Q = (1.03-) 1.05 - 1.26 (-1.30); Q = 1.11 - 1.18; Q = 1.15).  [ image ]


    88.

  5. flavoconia G. F. Atk. var. flavoconia +@!
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: LMC81, JE86, TMS86
    (Extremely common, with a wide variety of symbionts.  Spores: [139/8/8] (6.5-) 6.8 - 9.0 (-10.6) (4.8-) 5.0 - 7.0 (-8.9) m, (L = 7.2 - 8.2 (-8.6) m; L = 7.9 m; W = (5.3-) 5.5 - 6.9 m; W = 6.0 m; Q = (1.08-) 1.15 - 1.50 (-1.64); Q = 1.21 - 1.43 (-1.49); Q = 1.33).  [ image ]


    89.

  6. flavorubens (Berk. & Mont.)Sacc. @
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: LMC81, WS85, JE86, TMS86
    =A. flavorubescens G. F. Atk. Includes "affin. flavorubescens."  Spores: [180/9/8] (7.4-) 7.8 - 11.0 (-12.6) (4.9-) 5.4 - 7.0 (-8.4) m, (L = 8.3 - 9.7 ( -10.7) m; L = 9.2 m; W = ( 5.5-) 5.7 - 6.6 m; W = 6.1 m; Q = (1.17-) 1.28 - 1.76 (-1.96); Q = ( 1.34-) 1.37 - 1.67; Q = 1.52).  [ image ]


  7. cf. porphyria Albertini & Schwein. : Fr.
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: TMS86
    ?.


     91.

  8. rubescens sensu auct. amer orient. @H!
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: LMC81, WS85, TMS86
    ="amerirubescens Tulloss nom. prov."  Extremely common.  This entry includes specimens with yellowish underside of the partial veil which do not represent the f. annulosulfurea of Europe. Spores: [40/2/2] (7.0-) 7.3 - 9.5 (-9.8) (5.6-) 5.9 - 7.0 (-7.3) m, (L = 7.9 - 9.1 m; L = 8.5 m; W = 6.4 - 6.6 m; W = 6.5 m; Q = (1.05-) 1.14 - 1.46 (-1.53); Q = 1.23 - 1.38; Q = 1.31).  [ image ]


  9. ?spissa (Fr.) Kummer Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: LMC81, TMS86
    Doubtful determination.


  10. spissa var. alba Coker nom. inval.
    Colls.:
    Locs.:
    Lit.: LMC81
    Poorly known taxon.  Type consists only of a spore print.  Spores (per Jenkins): 6.3 - 7.5 4.2 - 5.0 m; Q' = 1.50.


  11.  species N5 !
    Colls.: DPL 8075, RET 6-10-00-N
    Locs.: MILC, RELS
    Lit.: -
    ="maryaliceae Tulloss nom. prov."  Pileus 50 - 90 mm wide, entirely white, unstaining, sometimes appear almost translucent, 5 - 6.5 mm thick over stipe, with universal veil as easily removed white warts, becoming grayish with age.  Lamellae free to narrowly adnate, white in mass (sometimes slightly pinkish at first), white in side view, 3 - 7 mm broad; lamellulae truncate to rounded truncate subtruncate to subattenuate to attenuate, sometimes adjacent to stipe rather than pileus margin, unevenly distributed, of diverse lengths, plentiful.  Stipe 57 - 135 5 - 12 mm, white, unchanging when cut or bruised, with bulb 22 - 42 14.5 - 21 mm, subnapiform to subradicating, partial veil apical to subapical, white; universal veil not evident or as detersile patch(es) easily left in soil or in broken collars or irregular rows (sometimes faint and sometimes suggesting the collars seen in A. muscaria), off-white to very pale grayish, darkening in age.   Spores: [99/5/5] (6.3-) 7.0 - 9.0 (-9.5) m, (L = 7.3 - 8.1 m; L' = 7.8 m; W = 5.3 - 5.7 m; W' = 5.5 m; Q = (1.19-) 1.25 - 1.62 (-1.71); Q = 1.35 - 1.50; Q' = 1.42).  This undescribed species is known from as far north as western Massachusetts and may occur as far south as the neovolcanic region of central Mexico.


  12.  species T3 +
    Colls.: RET 10-25-86-K
    Locs.:
    Lit.:
    A white, small, annulate, rooting entity with a pronounced odor of ripe pears. Spores: [20/1/1] (6.6-) 7.0 - 8.4 (-8.7) 4.5 - 5.9 m; L = 7.6 m; W = 5.1 m; Q = (1.24-) 1.30 - 1.71; Q = 1.48).


  13.  species T4 +
    Colls.: RET 10-25-86-G, 10-15-89-A
    Locs.: M-HENL
    Lit.: -
    A slender, medium to large mushroom with brownish gray virgate pileus; thin, membranous, white, nearly apical annulus; often with an elongate somewhat rooting bulb; odor absent to faint to faintly phenolic; very like species 18 of my New Jersey Pine Barrens Amanita list, but that has a more nearly ovoid bulb and a fruity odor. Spores: [20/1/1] (5.9-) 6.3 - 9.1 (-11.9) 4.5 - 5.6 (-7.0) m; L = 7.9 m; W = 5.1 m; Q = (1.20-) 1.27 - 1.63 (-1.75); Q = 1.53)


  14. species T15 @
    Colls.: RET 7-17-87-B; Jenkins 2795
    Locs.: M, M-BCRW, M-PRWM
    Lit.: -
    Little yellow pileus; suggesting gemmata, but with amyloid spores.  Spores: .


  15. species T28 @
    Colls.: DPL 3730
    Locs.: LANR
    Lit.: -
    Spores: .


  16. species T34 !
    Colls.: RET 6-10-00-K [NAMA 2000 voucher #292 (F)]
    Locs.: ?
    Lit.: -
    Olivaceous over margin, orange-brown over disc, faintly virgate.



Not assigned to section (none at this time).


BIBLIOGRAPHY

[BAS69] Bas, C. 1969. Morphology and subdivision of Amanita and a monograph of its section Lepidella. Persoonia 5: 285-579.

[CO88] Cibula, W. G. and C. L. Ovrebo. 1988. Mycosociological studies of mycorrhizal fungi in two Loblolly Pine plots in Mississippi and some relationships with remote sensing. Remote Sensing for Resource Inventory, Planning and Monitoring, Proc. 2nd Forest Service Remote Sensing Application Conference, J. D. Greer, ed. (Slidell, Louisiana and NSTL, Mississippi, April 11-15, 1988): 268-307.

[COK17] Coker, W. C. 1917. ?

[JE77] Jenkins, D. T. 1977. A taxonomic and nomenclatural study of the genus Amanita section Amanita for North America. Biblioth. Mycol. 57: 1-126.

[JE86] Jenkins, D. T.. 1986. Amanita in North America. Mad River, Eureka. vi+198 pp.

[JE88] Jenkins, D. T.. 1988. A new species of Amanita from North America: Amanita levistriata. Mycotaxon 32: 415-419.

[LEW78] Lewis, D. P. 1978. Agaricales of southeast Texas. M.S. thesis. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, Texas). x+168 pp.

[LCI00] Lewis, D. P. and W. G. Cibula. 2000. Studies of Gulf Coast agarics (Basidiomycota: Agaricaceae); note on some interesting and rare species. Texas J. Sci. 52(4) supplement: 65-78.

[LMC81] Lewis, D. P. and J. L. McGraw, Jr. 1981. Agaricales, Family Amanitaceae, of the Big Thicket. Southwestern Naturalist 26(1): 1-4.

[MM85] Metzler, S. and V. Metzler. 1985?. Texas Mycological Society composite species list 1977-1985. mimeo. 7 pp. (in reduced type form).

[MM92] Metzler, S. and V. Metzler.. 1992. Texas mushrooms. (Univ. Texas Press, Austin). vii+350 pp.

[TMS81] Texas Mycological Society. 1981. ?

[THI57] Thiers, H. D. 1957. The agaric flora of Texas. I. New species of agarics and boletes. Mycologia 49: 707-722.

[TU84] Tulloss, R. E. 1984. Distribution and taxonomic notes on Amanita mutabilis. Mycologia 76: 555-558.

[TU05]Tulloss, R. E. 2005. Amanitadistribution in the Americas with comparison to eastern and southern Asia and notes on spore character variation with latitude and ecology. Mycotaxon 93: 189-231.

[TUJ85] Tulloss, R. E. and D. T. Jenkins. 1985. Validation of Amanita longipes. Mycotaxon 22: 439-442.

[TUL94] Tulloss, R. E. and D. P. Lewis. 1994. Amanita westiitaxonomy and distribution. A rare species from states bordering the Gulf of Mexico. Mycotaxon 50: 131-138.<

[WS85] Weber, N. S. and A. H. Smith. 1985. A field guide to southern mushrooms. Michigan Univ. Press. viii+280 pp.


Last changed 4 December 2009.  [ top of page ]
This page is maintained by R. E. Tulloss.
Copyright 2007, 2008, 2009 by Rodham E. Tulloss, David P. Lewis, and Jay Justice.
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